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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4153073, 8 pages
Research Article

Bone Regeneration Using N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone as an Enhancer for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in a Rabbit Sinus Augmentation Model

1Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Material Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
3Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Ui-Won Jung

Received 14 February 2017; Accepted 6 April 2017; Published 7 June 2017

Academic Editor: Dong-Wook Han

Copyright © 2017 Hyun-Chang Lim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) can decrease the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus augmentation of rabbits. In each of 15 rabbits, 2 sinuses were randomly grafted using 1 of 3 treatment modalities: (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; control), (ii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP (BMP), or (iii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP soaked in NMP solution (BMP/NMP). The rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Bone formation in all groups was predominantly located close to the access window and the lateral walls. Newly formed bone within the total augmented area () was greatest in BMP/NMP ( mm2), followed by BMP ( mm2) and BCP ( mm2) (). In the center of the augmentation () and the area close to the sinus membrane (), BMP/NMP produced the largest area of NB (:  mm2; :  mm2); the corresponding NB values for BCP were  mm2 and  mm2, respectively ( for all comparisons). The effect of NMP on bone regeneration was inconsistent between the specimens. Adding NMP as an adjunct to rhBMP-2-coated BCP produced inconsistent effects on bone regeneration, resulting in no significant benefit compared to controls.