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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4540291, 11 pages
Research Article

Effect of Intermediate-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-250, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Bioelectronics Section, CINVESTAV, IPN, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Ciudad de México, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Luz Navarro

Received 11 July 2017; Revised 5 October 2017; Accepted 29 October 2017; Published 29 November 2017

Academic Editor: Sang Won Suh

Copyright © 2017 Leticia Verdugo-Diaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant public health concern and has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although several research groups have proposed the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to enhance neuroprotection and recovery in patients with TBI, few studies have obtained sufficient evidence regarding its effects in this population. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of intermediate-frequency rTMS (2 Hz) on behavioral and histological recovery following TBI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three groups without TBI (no manipulation, movement restriction plus sham rTMS, and movement restriction plus rTMS) and three groups subjected to TBI (TBI only, TBI plus movement restriction and sham rTMS, and TBI plus movement restriction and rTMS). The movement restriction groups were included so that rTMS could be applied without anesthesia. Our results indicate that the restriction of movement and sham rTMS per se promotes recovery, as measured using a neurobehavioral scale, although rTMS was associated with faster and superior recovery. We also observed that TBI caused alterations in the CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus, which are partly restored by movement restriction and rTMS. Our findings indicated that movement restriction prevents damage caused by TBI and that intermediate-frequency rTMS promotes behavioral and histologic recovery after TBI.