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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 5765417, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5765417
Review Article

Intestinal Barrier Disturbances in Haemodialysis Patients: Mechanisms, Consequences, and Therapeutic Options

1Department of Infection Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
2John Walls Renal Unit, University Hospitals Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK
3National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine and School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
4Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital Leicester, Leicester, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to D. S. March; ku.ca.el@21msd

Received 31 October 2016; Accepted 20 December 2016; Published 17 January 2017

Academic Editor: Sabine Rohrmann

Copyright © 2017 D. S. March et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There is accumulating evidence that the intestinal barrier and the microbiota may play a role in the systemic inflammation present in HD patients. HD patients are subject to a number of unique factors, some related to the HD process and others simply to the uraemic milieu but with common characteristic that they can both alter the intestinal barrier and the microbiota. This review is intended to provide an overview of the current methods for measuring such changes in HD patients, the mechanisms behind these changes, and potential strategies that may mitigate these modifications. Lastly, intradialytic exercise is an increasingly employed intervention in HD patients; however the potential implications that this may have for the intestinal barrier are not known; therefore future research directions are also covered.