Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6486859, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6486859
Review Article

One-Stage Immediate Breast Reconstruction: A Concise Review

1Department of Medicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery Division, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
2Cutaneous, Mini-Invasive, Regenerative and Plastic Surgery Unit, Parma University Hospital, Parma, Italy
3Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
4Plastic Surgery Department, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, National Institute for Cancer Research Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Nicolò Bertozzi; moc.oohay@izzotreb.olocin

Received 21 July 2017; Accepted 24 August 2017; Published 2 October 2017

Academic Editor: Subhas Gupta

Copyright © 2017 Nicolò Bertozzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, J. P. Browne et al., “Findings of a national comparative audit of mastectomy and breast reconstruction surgery in England,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1333–1344, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. A. Juhl, S. Christensen, R. Zachariae, and T. E. Damsgaard, “Unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy–patient satisfaction, aesthetic outcome and quality of life,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 225–231, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Jagsi, “Patient satisfaction with postmastectomy breast reconstruction: a comparison of saline and silicone implants,” Cancer, vol. 116, pp. 5584–5591, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. L. Pusic, A. F. Klassen, A. M. Scott, J. A. Klok, P. G. Cordeiro, and S. J. Cano, “Development of a new patient-reported outcome measure for breast surgery: The BREAST-Q,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 345–353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Zhong, C. McCarthy, S. Min et al., “Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life after autologous tissue breast reconstruction: a prospective analysis of early postoperative outcomes,” Cancer, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 1701–1709, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Cemal, C. R. Albornoz, J. J. Disa et al., “A paradigm shift in U.S. breast reconstruction: Part 2. the influence of changing mastectomy patterns on reconstructive rate and method,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 131, no. 3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. R. Albornoz, P. B. Bach, B. J. Mehrara et al., “A paradigm shift in U.S. Breast reconstruction: increasing implant rates,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. M. Hirsch, A. K. Seth, G. A. Dumanian et al., “Outcomes of tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction in the setting of prereconstruction radiation,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 354–361, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. M. Baschnagel, C. Shah, J. B. Wilkinson, N. Dekhne, D. W. Arthur, and F. A. Vicini, “Failure rate and cosmesis of immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction after postmastectomy irradiation,” Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 428–432, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Agusti, A. Ward, C. Montgomery, K. Mohammed, and G. P. H. Gui, “Aesthetic and oncologic outcomes after one-stage immediate breast reconstruction using a permanent biodimensional expandable implant,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 211–220, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Zhang, Y. Li, M. S. Moran, B. G. Haffty, and Q. Yang, “Predictive factors of nipple involvement in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 239–249, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Munhoz, E. Montag, J. R. Filassi, and R. Gemperli, “Immediate nipple-Areola-sparing mastectomy reconstruction: An update on oncological and reconstruction techniques,” World Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 478–494, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. H. Breuing and S. M. Warren, “Immediate bilateral breast reconstruction with implants and inferolateral AlloDerm slings,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 232–239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Dieterich, J. Angres, J. Stubert, A. Stachs, T. Reimer, and B. Gerber, “Patient-Reported Outcomes in Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Alone or in Combination with a Titanium-Coated Polypropylene Mesh - A Detailed Analysis of the BREAST-Q and Overview of the Literature,” Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 692–701, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Gschwantler-Kaulich, P. Schrenk, V. Bjelic-Radisic et al., “Mesh versus acellular dermal matrix in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction - A prospective randomized trial,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 665–671, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. F. Delgado, R. F. García-Guilarte, M. R. Palazuelo, J. I. S. Mendez, and C. C. Pérez, “Immediate breast reconstruction with direct, anatomic, gel-cohesive, extra-projection prosthesis: 400 cases,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1599–1605, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. S. Colwell, B. Damjanovic, B. Zahedi, L. Medford-Davis, C. Hertl, and W. G. Austen, “Retrospective review of 331 consecutive immediate single-stage implant reconstructions with acellular dermal matrix: Indications, complications, trends, and costs,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1170–1178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. A. Salzberg, A. Y. Ashikari, R. M. Koch, and E. Chabner-Thompson, “An 8-year experience of direct-to-implant immediate breast reconstruction using human acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm),” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 514–524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. B. Hvilsom, S. Friis, K. Frederiksen et al., “The clinical course of immediate breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1045–1052, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. H. Bailey, J. W. Smith, L. Casas et al., “Immediate breast reconstruction: reducing the risks,” Plastic and Reconstructive surgery, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 845–851, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. P. Fischer, A. M. Wes, C. T. Tuggle III, J. M. Serletti, and L. C. Wu, “Risk analysis of early implant loss after immediate breast reconstruction: A review of 14,585 patients,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 217, no. 6, pp. 983–990, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Pinsolle, C. Grinfeder, S. Mathoulin-Pelissier, and A. Faucher, “Complications analysis of 266 immediate breast reconstructions,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1017–1024, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. A. Jansen and S. A. Macadam, “The use of AlloDerm in postmastectomy alloplastic breast reconstruction: part I. A systematic review,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 2232–2244, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 212–236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer facts & figures 2011–2012. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2011-2012.pdf.
  26. T. Tondu, F. Thiessen, and W. A. A. Tjalma, “Prophylactic bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomy and a staged breast reconstruction technique: Preliminary results,” Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 185–189, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. M. Rosenberg, K. Sepucha, K. J. Ruddy et al., “Local Therapy Decision-Making and Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Young Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 3809–3815, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. A. Girotto, J. Schreiber, M. Y. Nahabedian, and P. Glat, “Breast reconstruction in the elderly: Preserving excellent quality of life,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 572–578, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. A. Salzberg, “Nonexpansive immediate breast reconstruction using human acellular tissue matrix graft (AlloDerm),” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Ho, T. J. Nguyen, A. Shahabi, B. H. Hwang, L. S. Chan, and A. K. Wong, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of complications associated with acellular dermal matrix-assisted breast reconstruction,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 346–356, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Scheflan and A. S. Colwell, “Tissue reinforcement in implant-based breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. P. Agarwal, S. D. Mendenhall, L. A. Anderson et al., “The breast reconstruction evaluation of acellular dermal matrix as a sling trial (BREASTrial): Design and methods of a prospective randomized trial,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. M. S. Ibrahim, M. Shuster, P. G. L. Koolen et al., “Analysis of the national surgical quality improvement program database in 19,100 patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction: complication rates with acellular dermal matrix,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1057–1066, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. S. Colwell, O. Tessler, A. M. Lin et al., “Breast reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy: Predictors of complications, reconstruction outcomes, and 5-year trends,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 496–506, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Plastic surgery statistics report 2012. Available at https://d2wirczt3b6wjm.cloudfront.net/News/Statistics/2012/plastic-surgery-statistics-full-report-2012.pdf.
  36. C. E. Butler, H. N. Langstein, and S. J. Kronowitz, “Pelvic, abdominal, and chest wall reconstruction with AlloDerm in patients at increased risk for mesh-related complications,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1263–1275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. O. Terino, “Alloderm acellular dermal graft: Applications in aesthetic soft-tissue augmentation,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 83–99, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Connor, D. McQuillan, M. Sandor et al., “Retention of structural and biochemical integrity in a biological mesh supports tissue remodeling in a primate abdominal wall model,” Regenerative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. J. Wainwright, “Use of an acellular allograft dermal matrix (AlloDerm) in the management of full-thickness burns,” Burns, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 243–248, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. M. Chaplin, P. D. Costantino, M. E. Wolpoe, J. B. Bederson, E. S. Griffey, and W. X. Zhang, “Use of an acellular dermal allograft for dural replacement: An experimental study,” Neurosurgery, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 320–327, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. A. Preminger, C. M. McCarthy, Q. Y. Hu, B. J. Mehrara, and J. J. Disa, “The influence of AlloDerm on expander dynamics and complications in the setting of immediate tissue expander/implant reconstruction: A matched-cohort study,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 510–513, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. A. Davila, A. K. Seth, E. Wang et al., “Human acellular dermis versus submuscular tissue expander breast reconstruction: A multivariate analysis of short-term complications,” Archives of Plastic Surgery, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. L. Spear, P. M. Parikh, E. Reisin, and N. G. Menon, “Acellular dermis-assisted breast reconstruction,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 418–425, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Endress, M. S. S. Choi, and G. K. Lee, “Use of fetal bovine acellular dermal xenograft with tissue expansion for staged breast reconstruction,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 338–341, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Bernini, C. Calabrese, L. Cecconi et al., “Subcutaneous direct-to-implant breast reconstruction: surgical, functional, and aesthetic results after long-term follow-up,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open, vol. 3, no. 12, p. e574, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. Y. W. Novitsky and M. J. Rosen, “The Biology of Biologics,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 130, pp. 9S–17S, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. A. Salibian, J. D. Frey, M. Choi, and N. S. Karp, “Subcutaneous implant-based breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix/mesh: a systematic review,” Plastic and reconstructive surgery—global open, vol. 4, no. 11, p. e1139, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. P. V. Van Deventer, F. R. Graewe, and E. Würinger, “Improving the longevity and results of mastopexy and breast reduction procedures: Reconstructing an internal breast support system with biocompatible mesh to replace the supporting function of the ligamentous suspension,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 578–589, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. P. De Bruijn and S. Johannes, “Mastopexy with 3D preshaped mesh for long-term results: Development of the internal bra system,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 757–765, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Dieterich, T. Reimer, H. Dieterich, J. Stubert, and B. Gerber, “A short-term follow-up of implant based breast reconstruction using a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh (TiLoop® Bra),” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1225–1230, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. P. Lynch, M. T. Chung, and B. D. Rinker, “Dermal autografts as a substitute for acellular dermal matrices (ADM) in tissue expander breast reconstruction: A prospective comparative study,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1534–1542, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Maguina, R. Hoffman, and S. Szczerba, “Autologous dermal graft in breast reconstruction and treatment of breast implant malposition,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 125, no. 4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. A. Hudson, K. G. Adams, and S. Adams, “Autologous dermal graft in breast reconstruction,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 253–256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. Scuderi, C. Alfano, G. V. Campus et al., “Multicenter study on breast reconstruction outcome using becker implants,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. B. Nava, U. Cortinovis, J. Ottolenghi et al., “Skin-reducing mastectomy,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 603–610, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. D. McCue, M. Migliori, and B. L. Cunningham, “Expanders and breast reconstruction with gel and saline implants,” Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast, pp. 29–50, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Y. Chun, I. Ganske, K. Verma, H. Rosen, and E. Eriksson, “Minimizing complications with the use of acellular dermal matrix for immediate implant- based breast reconstruction,” Ann Plast Surg, vol. 71, pp. 464–470, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  58. Maruccia M, Mazzocchi M, Dessy LA, Onesti MG. One-stage breast reconstruction techniques in elderly patients to preserve quality of life. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20: 5058-5066.
  59. Ribuffo D, Monfrecola A, Guerra M, et al. Does postoperative radiation therapy represent a contraindication to expander-implant based immediate breast reconstruction? An update 2012- 2014. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19: 2202-2207.
  60. S. L. Spear, M. Seruya, S. S. Rao et al., “Two-stage prosthetic breast reconstruction using AlloDerm including outcomes of different timings of radiotherapy,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. J. Kronowitz and G. L. Robb, “Radiation therapy and breast reconstruction: A critical review of the literature,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 395–408, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Speers, S. Zhao, M. Liu, H. Bartelink, L. J. Pierce, and F. Y. Feng, “Development and validation of a novel radiosensitivity signature in human breast cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 3667–3677, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. Jagsi, “Progress and controversies: Radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 135–152, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. R. Anderson, A. L. Hanlon, S. W. McNeeley, and G. M. Freedman, “Low complication rates are achievable after postmastectomy breast reconstruction and radiation therapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1080–1087, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Jagsi, J. Jiang, A. O. Momoh et al., “Complications after mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer a claims-bas ed analysis,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 263, no. 2, pp. 219–227, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Rietjens, F. De Lorenzi, P. Veronesi et al., “Breast conservative treatment in association with implant augmentation and intraoperative radiotherapy,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 532–535, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Vandeweyer and R. Deraemaecker, “Radiation therapy after immediate breast reconstruction with implants,” Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 56–58, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. S. L. Spear and C. Onyewu, “Staged breast reconstruction with saline-filled implants in the irradiated breast: Recent trends and therapeutic implications,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 930–942, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. C. M. E. Contant, A. N. Van Geel, B. Van Der Holt, C. Griep, R. Tjong Joe Wai, and T. Wiggers, “Morbidity of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy by a subpectorally placed silicone prosthesis: The adverse effect of radiotherapy,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. K. Benediktsson and L. Perbeck, “Capsular contracture around saline-filled and textured subcutaneously-placed implants in irradiated and non-irradiated breast cancer patients: Five years of monitoring of a prospective trial,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. Persichetti, B. Cagli, P. Simone et al., “Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 350–354, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. W. Clemens and S. J. Kronowitz, “Acellular dermal matrix in irradiated tissue expander/implant- based breast reconstruction: evidence-based review,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 130, pp. 27S–34S, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. P. Fischer, J. A. Nelson, J. M. Serletti, and L. C. Wu, “Peri-operative risk factors associated with early tissue expander (TE) loss following immediate breast reconstruction (IBR): A review of 9305 patients from the 2005-2010 ACS-NSQIP datasets,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1504–1512, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. N. Basta, P. A. Gerety, J. M. Serletti, S. J. Kovach, and J. P. Fischer, “A Systematic Review and Head-to-Head Meta-Analysis of Outcomes following Direct-to-Implant versus Conventional Two-Stage Implant Reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 1135–1144, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. N. C. O. Munabi, O. B. Olorunnipa, D. Goltsman, C. H. Rohde, and J. A. Ascherman, “The ability of intra-operative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography to predict mastectomy flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: A prospective trial,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 449–455, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Raposio, V. Belgrano, P. L. Santi, and C. Chiorri, “Which is the ideal breast size? some social clues for plastic surgeons,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 340–345, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. G. Camilleri, C. M. Malata, S. Stavrianos, and N. R. McLean, “A review of 120 Becker permanent tissue expanders in reconstruction of the breast,” British Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 346–351, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. P. H. Gui, S.-M. Tan, E. C. Faliakou, C. Choy, R. A'Hern, and A. Ward, “Immediate breast reconstruction using biodimensional anatomical permanent expander implants: A prospective analysis of outcome and patient satisfaction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 125–138, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Raposio, P. Caregnato, P. Barabino et al., “A computer-based preoperative planning for the surgical treatment of unilateral breast hypoplasia,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 711–714, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. Raposio, S. Cicchetti, M. Adami, R. G. Ciliberti, and P. L. Santi, “Computer planning for breast reconstruction by tissue expansion: An update,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 2095–2097, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. I. Porro, A. Schenone, M. Fato, E. Raposio, E. Molinari, and F. Beltrame, “An integrated environment for plastic surgery support: Building virtual patients, simulating interventions, and supporting intraoperative decisions,” Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 385–394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. G. Cordeiro and L. Jazayeri, “Two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction: An evolution of the conceptual and technical approach over a two-decade period,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Folli, M. Mingozzi, A. Curcio, F. Buggi, and C. Rossi, “Nipple areola complex sparing mastectomy,” Gland Surgery, vol. 4, pp. 528–540, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Fan, E. Raposio, J. Wang, and R. E. A. Nordström, “Development of the inframammary fold and ptosis in breast reconstruction with textured tissue expanders,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 219–222, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Nava MB, Catanuto G, Pennati A, Cividin VV, Spano A. Expander-implants breast reconstruction. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery, 3rd ed. New York: Elsevier Ltd.; 2013, pp. 336–369.
  86. B. T. Phillips, S. T. Lanier, N. Conkling et al., “Intraoperative perfusion techniques can accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: Results of a prospective trial,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 5, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. R. Singer, C. M. Lewis, J. D. Franklin, and J. B. Lynch, “Fluorescein test for prediction of flap viability during breast reconstructions,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 371–375, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Losken, T. M. Styblo, T. G. Schaefer, and G. W. Carlson, “The use of fluorescein dye as a predictor of mastectomy skin flap viability following autologous tissue reconstruction,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. J. Disa, D. D. Ad-El, S. M. Cohen, P. G. Cordeiro, and D. A. Hidalgo, “The premature removal of tissue expanders in breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1662–1665, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Folli, M. Mingozzi, A. Curcio, F. Buggi, and C. Rossi, “Nipple-sparing mastectomy: An alternative technique for large ptotic breasts,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 220, no. 5, pp. e65–e69, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. W. P. Adams Jr., J. L. Rios, and S. J. Smith, “Enhancing patient outcomes in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery using triple antibiotic breast irrigation: Six-year prospective clinical study,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. T. C. Wiener, “The role of betadine irrigation in breast augmentation,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 12–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. B. Burkhardt and E. Eades, “The effect of biocell texturing and povidone- iodine irrigation on capsular contracture around saline-inflatable breast implants,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1317–1325, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. A Macadam and P. A Lennox, “Acellular dermal matrices: use in reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery,” Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 75–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. A. Alderman, K. Gutowski, A. Ahuja, and D. Gray, “ASPS clinical practice guideline summary on breast reconstruction with expanders and implants,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 648e–655e, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. B. Phillips, M. Bishawi, A. Dagum, D. Bui, and S. Khan, “A systematic review of infection rates and associated antibiotic duration in acellular dermal matrix breast reconstruction,” Eplasty, vol. 14, e42 pages, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  97. W. A. Townley, N. Baluch, S. Bagher et al., “A single pre-operative antibiotic dose is as effective as continued antibiotic prophylaxis in implant-based breast reconstruction: A matched cohort study,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 673–678, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. C. Classen, R. S. Evans, S. L. Pestotnik, S. D. Horn, R. L. Menlove, and J. P. Burke, “The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 326, no. 5, pp. 281–286, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. F. Bunn, D. J. Jones, and S. Bell-Syer, “Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery,” Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online), vol. 1, p. CD005360, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. I. C. Gyssens, “Preventing postoperative infections. Current treatment recommendations,” Drugs, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 175–185, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. Farhadi, G. K. Maksvytyte, D. J. Schaefer, G. Pierer, and O. Scheufler, “Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex: An update,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 40–53, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. E. Delay, “Fat injections to the breast: The lipomodeling technique,” Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast, pp. 171–192, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. F. Simonacci, N. Bertozzi, M. P. Grieco, E. Grignaffini, and E. Raposio, “Autologous fat transplantation for breast reconstruction: A literature review,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 12, pp. 94–100, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. E. Raposio, G. Caruana, M. Petrella, S. Bonomini, and M. P. Grieco, “A standardized method of isolating adipose-derived stem cells for clinical applications,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 124–126, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. E. Raposio, G. Caruana, S. Bonomini, and G. Libondi, “A novel and effective strategy for the isolation of adipose-derived stem cells: minimally manipulated adipose-derived stem cells for more rapid and safe stem cell therapy,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 1406–1409, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. Bhatia, A. G. Elefanty, S. J. Fisher, R. Patient, T. Schlaeger, and E. Y. Snyder, Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2007.
  107. E. Raposio, F. Simonacci, and R. E. Perrotta, “Adipose-derived stem cells: comparison between two methods of isolation for clinical applications,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 87–91, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. C. Scanarotti, A. M. Bassi, M. Catalano et al., “Neurogenic-committed human pre-adipocytes express CYP1A isoforms,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 474–483, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. Coradeghini, C. Guida, C. Scanarotti et al., “A comparative study of proliferation and hepatic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells,” Cells Tissues Organs, vol. 191, no. 6, pp. 466–477, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. G. Aluigi, R. Coradeghini, C. Guida et al., “Pre-adipocytes commitment to neurogenesis 1: Preliminary localisation of cholinergic molecules,” Cell Biology International, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 594–601, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. E. Raposio, C. Guida, I. Baldelli et al., “Characterization and induction of human pre-adipocytes,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 330–334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. E. Raposio, C. Guida, R. Coradeghini et al., “In vitro polydeoxyribonucleotide effects on human pre-adipocytes,” Cell Proliferation, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 739–754, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. G. Caruana, N. Bertozzi, E. Boschi, M. P. Grieco, E. Grignaffini, and E. Raposio, “Role of adipose-derived stem cells in chronic cutaneous wound healing,” Annali Italiani di Chirurgia, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. E. Raposio, N. Bertozzi, S. Bonomini et al., “Adipose-derived stem cells added to platelet-rich plasma for chronic skin ulcer therapy,” Wounds, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 126–131, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. N. Bertozzi, F. Simonacci, M. P. Grieco, E. Grignaffini, and E. Raposio, “The biological and clinical basis for the use of adipose-derived stem cells in the field of wound healing,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 41–48, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. G. Rigotti, A. Marchi, M. Galiè et al., “Clinical treatment of radiotherapy tissue damage by lipoaspirate transplant: a healing process mediated by adipose-derived adult stem cells,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 1409–1424, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. M. Serra-Renom, J. L. Muñoz-Olmo, and J. M. Serra-Mestre, “Fat grafting in postmastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and prostheses in patients who have received radiotherapy: Formation of new subcutaneous tissue,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. F. Simonacci, N. Bertozzi, M. P. Grieco, E. Grignaffini, and E. Raposio, “Procedure, applications, and outcomes of autologous fat grafting,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 49–60, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. P. G. Cordeiro and C. M. McCarthy, “A single surgeon's 12-year experience with tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction: Part I. A prospective analysis of early complications,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 825–831, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. G. Cordeiro and C. M. McCarthy, “A single surgeon's 12-year experience with tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction: Part II. An analysis of long-term complications, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 832–839, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. P. A. Lennox, E. S. Bovill, and S. A. Macadam, “Evidence-based medicine: alloplastic breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 94e–108e, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. S. B. Glasberg and D. Light, “AlloDerm and strattice in breast reconstruction: a comparison and techniques for optimizing outcomes,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1223–1233, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. C. A. Salzberg, “Focus on technique: one-stage implant-based breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 130, pp. 95S–103S, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. T. Jahkola, S. Asko-Seljavaara, and K. Van Smitten, “Immediate breast reconstruction,” Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 249–256, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. H. Sbitany, S. N. Sandeen, A. N. Amalfi, M. S. Davenport, and H. N. Langstein, “Acellular dermis-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction versus complete submuscular coverage: A head-to-head comparison of outcomes,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1735–1740, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. S. L. Spear, M. Seruya, M. W. Clemens, S. Teitelbaum, and M. Y. Nahabedian, “Acellular dermal matrix for the treatment and prevention of implant-associated breast deformities,” Plastic Surgical Nursing, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 76–87, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. D. S. Mowlds, A. A. Salibian, T. Scholz, K. Z. Paydar, and G. A. Wirth, “Capsular contracture in implant-based breast reconstruction: Examining the role of acellular dermal matrix fenestrations,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 629–635, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Stump, L. H. Holton, J. Connor, J. R. Harper, S. Slezak, and R. P. Silverman, “The use of acellular dermal matrix to prevent capsule formation around implants in a primate model,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 82–91, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. D. Casella, C. Calabrese, S. Bianchi, I. Meattini, and M. Bernini, “Subcutaneous tissue expander placement with synthetic titanium-coated mesh in breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery—Global Open, vol. 3, no. 12, p. e577, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. H. Becker, J. G. Lind, and E. G. Hopkins, “Immediate implant-based prepectoral breast reconstruction using a vertical incision,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open, vol. 3, no. 6, p. e412, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. J. Roostaeian, I. Sanchez, A. Vardanian et al., “Comparison of immediate implant placement versus the staged tissue expander technique in breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. Raposio E, Bertozzi N. Quantitative difference of acute intraoperative expansion in various body regions. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21: 454–459.
  133. E. Raposio and N. Bertozzi, “Ultrastructural effects of topical dimethyl sulfoxide on collage fibers during acute skin expansion in a human ex-vivo model,” European Journal of Plastic Surgery, pp. 1–6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. N. Abedi, A. L. Ho, A. Knox et al., “Predictors of mastectomy flap necrosis in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction a review of 718 patients,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 629–634, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. M. P. Grieco, E. Grignaffini, F. Simonacci, D. Di Mascio, and E. Raposio, “Post-bariatric body contouring: our experience,” Acta Biomedica, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. R. P. Gruber, R. A. Kahn, H. Lash, M. R. Maser, D. B. Apfelberg, and D. R. Laub, “Breast reconstruction following mastectomy: A comparison of submuscular and subcutaneous techniques,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 312–317, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. V. Bindingnavele, M. Gaon, K. S. Ota, D. A. Kulber, and D.-J. Lee, “Use of acellular cadaveric dermis and tissue expansion in postmastectomy breast reconstruction,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1214–1218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. M. S. Wallace, A. M. Wallace, J. Lee, and M. K. Dobke, “Pain after breast surgery: a survey of 282 women,” Pain, vol. 66, no. 2-3, pp. 195–205, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. S. L. Spear, J. Schwartz, J. H. Dayan, and M. W. Clemens, “Outcome assessment of breast distortion following submuscular breast augmentation,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. D. C. Hammond, W. P. Schmitt, and E. A. O'Connor, “Treatment of Breast Animation Deformity in Implant-Based Reconstruction with Pocket Change to the Subcutaneous Position,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 1540–1544, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. t. Kiernan and l. Martin, “Use of acellular dermal matrix is comparable to expander based breast reconstructions for postoperative physiotherapy requirements,” in Surgery Curr Res, vol. 3, pp. 136-137, 3, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  142. N. Scuderi, M. Mazzocchi, P. Fioramonti et al., “Treatment of the capsular contracture around mammary implants: our experience,” Il Giornale di chirurgia, vol. 29, pp. 369–372, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. A. Apte, M. Walsh, S. Chandrasekharan, and A. Chakravorty, “Immediate breast reconstruction using ADM and implant: 5-year experience,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO), vol. 43, no. 5, pp. S59–S60, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. G. Berna, S. J. Cawthorn, G. Papaccio, and N. Balestrieri, “Evaluation of a novel breast reconstruction technique using the Braxon® acellular dermal matrix: A new muscle-sparing breast reconstruction,” ANZ Journal of Surgery, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. W. F. Chen, D. Barounis, and R. Kalimuthu, “A novel cost-saving approach to the use of acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm) in postmastectomy breast and nipple reconstructions,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 479–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. N. M. Krishnan, A. Chatterjee, K. M. Rosenkranz, S. G. Powell, J. F. Nigriny, and D. C. Vidal, “The cost effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix in expander-implant immediate breast reconstruction,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 468–476, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. Y. S. Kim, A. A. Davila, S. Persing et al., “A meta-analysis of human acellular dermis and submuscular tissue expander breast reconstruction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 28–41, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. N. Bertozzi, M. Pesce, P. Santi, and E. Raposio, “Oncoplastic breast surgery: comprehensive review,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, vol. 21, pp. 2572–2585, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  149. N. Bertozzi, M. Pesce, P. Santi, and E. Raposio, “Tissue expansion for breast reconstruction: Methods and techniques,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 21, pp. 34–44, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. V. u. MM and J. Y. Kim, “Current opinions on indications and algorithms for acellular dermal matrix use in primary prosthetic breast reconstruction,” Gland Surg, vol. 4, pp. 195–203, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  151. S. W. Jordan, N. Khavanin, N. A. Fine, and J. Y. S. Kim, “An algorithmic approach for selective acellular dermal matrix use in immediate two-stage breast reconstruction: Indications and outcomes,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 178–188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. G. Libondi, M. Solinas, E. M. Martella, and L. Cattelani, “Nipple sparing mastectomy with immediate silicone implant reconstruction for malignant phyllodes tumor in a 19-year-old girl,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 4498–4500, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. M. Gardani, N. Bertozzi, M. P. Grieco et al., “Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature,” Annals of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 21, pp. 96–104, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. U. Veronesi, V. Stafyla, J.-Y. Petit, and P. Veronesi, “Conservative mastectomy: Extending the idea of breast conservation,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. e311–e317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus