Ultrasound Mediated Microbubbles Destruction Augmented Sonolysis: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study
Assessment of thrombolytic efficacy and the pathological changes in FAT in rabbits. (a) Assessment of thrombolytic rate with CDFI. In the control group, continuous flow was recorded in the left femoral artery ((A1), white arrows), while a defect in blood flow was found at FAT in the right femoral artery with CDFI ((A2), white arrows); a narrow and strip flow in blue or turbulent in grade I was observed through the edge of clots in TUS group at 30 min ((A3), white arrows); blood flow of grade II or higher ((A4), white arrows) was recorded at 30 min in the TUS + MB group. (b) Assessment of thrombolytic rate with X-ray angiography. No reperfusion in the control ((B1), white arrowheads), grade I flow in TUS group ((B2), white arrowheads) and grade II ((B3), white arrowheads) in TUS + MB group at 30 min. (c) Pathological changes of FAT following sonothrombolytic treatment under light microscopy. An obstructive thrombus consisted of red blood cells and fibrin matrix was observed (C1); small amount of red blood cells destruction was observed associated with partially dissolved FAT ((C2), black asterisk) at 30 min in TUS group; clots were sonolysed in large amount and the recanalized FA was collapsed with residual thrombus in the inner wall of FA ((C3), black asterisks).