Implant surgery and guided bone regeneration procedures for the in vivo study. (a) The buccal open defects 2.5 mm were formed on the mandible of the experiment animal. (b) The implants were placed on the buccal open defects. (c) All the defects were filled with the particulate bone graft materials. (d) The collagen membrane (CM) and 3D preformed Ti-membranes (3D-PFTMs) were placed randomly on the buccal open defects. The 3D-PFTM connected to implant fixture with anchor and cover cap.