Phenotypic properties of hAMSCs and multidirectional differentiation potential of hAMSCs. Alizarin red staining of hAMSCs cultured in osteogenic medium for 0 and 21 days. Toluidine blue staining of hAMSCs cultured in chondrogenic medium for 0 and 21 days. Oil red staining of hAMSCs cultured in adipogenic medium for 0 and 21 days (a). hAMSCs in the 3rd passage barely expressed CK-19. hAMSCs were positive for vimentin expression. CK-19 and vimentin were stained green by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and cell nuclei were stained blue by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (b). According to flow cytometric analysis, hAMSCs were positive for expression of CD90, CD105, CD73, and CD44 and negative for expression of CD34, CD19, CD45, CD11b, and HLA-DR (c). Scale bars in (a-b) = 100 μm.