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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8013575, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8013575
Review Article

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarkers in Glioblastoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives

1Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Silesia, Regional Hospital, Sosnowiec, Poland
2Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Wojciech Kaspera; lp.ude.mus@arepsakw

Received 11 August 2016; Accepted 13 December 2016; Published 20 February 2017

Academic Editor: Franco M. Buonaguro

Copyright © 2017 Wojciech Szopa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system, characterized by an extremely aggressive clinical phenotype. Patients with GBM have a poor prognosis and only 3–5% of them survive for more than 5 years. The current GBM treatment standards include maximal resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant therapies. Despite these aggressive therapeutic regimens, the majority of patients suffer recurrence due to molecular heterogeneity of GBM. Consequently, a number of potential diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers have been investigated. Some of them, such as IDH mutations, 1p19q deletion, MGMT promoter methylation, and EGFRvIII amplification are frequently tested in routine clinical practice. With the development of sequencing technology, detailed characterization of GBM molecular signatures has facilitated a more personalized therapeutic approach and contributed to the development of a new generation of anti-GBM therapies such as molecular inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors, vaccines, antibody-based drug conjugates, and more recently inhibitors blocking the immune checkpoints. In this article, we review the exciting progress towards elucidating the potential of current and novel GBM biomarkers and discuss their implications for clinical practice.