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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8032910, 10 pages
Research Article

RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Interactions between Breast Cancer or Melanoma Cells and the Tissue Microenvironment during Brain Metastasis

1Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
3Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
4The Center for Integrated Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
5Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
6Laboratory of Gene Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Yoshimi Arima; pj.oiek.7z@amira

Received 28 August 2016; Revised 18 November 2016; Accepted 7 December 2016; Published 22 January 2017

Academic Editor: Ernesto Picardi

Copyright © 2017 Ryo Sato et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non–small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the treatment of primary tumors, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis of cancer cells to the brain have remained unclear. Metastasizing cancer cells interact with their microenvironment in the brain to establish metastases. We have now developed mouse models of brain metastasis based on intracardiac injection of human breast cancer or melanoma cell lines, and we have performed RNA sequencing analysis to identify genes in mouse brain tissue and the human cancer cells whose expression is associated specifically with metastasis. We found that the expressions of the mouse genes Tph2, Sspo, Ptprq, and Pole as well as those of the human genes CXCR4, PLLP, TNFSF4, VCAM1, SLC8A2, and SLC7A11 were upregulated in brain tissue harboring metastases. Further characterization of such genes that contribute to the establishment of brain metastases may provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies and consequent improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients.