Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8471546, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8471546
Research Article

Evidence for Startle Effects due to Externally Induced Lower Limb Movements: Implications in Neurorehabilitation

1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and National School of Occupational Medicine, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
2Department of Neurology, Hochzirl Hospital, Zirl, Austria

Correspondence should be addressed to Markus Kofler; ta.ca.dem-i@relfok.sukram

Received 24 August 2016; Revised 10 January 2017; Accepted 19 January 2017; Published 16 February 2017

Academic Editor: Prescott B. Chase

Copyright © 2017 Juan M. Castellote et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Cordo and L. M. Nashner, “Properties of postural adjustments associated with rapid arm movements,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 287–302, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. B. Horak, L. M. Nashner, and H. C. Diener, “Postural strategies associated with somatosensory and vestibular loss,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 167–177, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. V. Alexandrov, A. A. Frolov, and J. Massion, “Biomechanical analysis of movement strategies in human forward trunk bending. II. Experimental study,” Biological Cybernetics, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 435–443, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Yamazaki, M. Suzuki, T. Ohkuwa, and H. Itoh, “Maintenance of upright standing posture during trunk rotation elicited by rapid and asymmetrical movements of the arms,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 30–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Foongsathaporn, P. Panyakaew, O. Jitkritsadakul, and R. Bhidayasiri, “What daily activities increase the risk of falling in Parkinson patients? An analysis of the utility of the ABC-16 scale,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 364, pp. 183–187, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. P. Hobeika, “Equilibrium and balance in the elderly,” Ear, Nose and Throat Journal, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 558–566, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Mazumder, C. Murchison, D. Bourdette, and M. Cameron, “Falls in people with multiple sclerosis compared with falls in healthy controls,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, Article ID e107620, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Wei, M. Liu, J. Fergenbaum, P. Comper, and A. Colantonio, “Work-related mild–moderate traumatic brain injuries due to falls,” Brain Injury, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1358–1363, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. E. Woodland and S. J. G. Hobson, “An occupational therapy perspective on falls prevention among community-dwelling older adults,” Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 174–182, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. E. Chisholm, A. Domingo, J. Jeyasurya, and T. Lam, “Quantification of lower extremity kinesthesia deficits using a robotic exoskeleton in people with a spinal cord injury,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 199–208, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. E. Crago, J. C. Houk, and Z. Hasan, “Regulatory actions of human stretch reflex,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 925–935, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. V. Evarts and R. Granit, “Relations of reflexes and intended movements,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 44, pp. 1–14, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. Kiechl, A. Mayr, L. Saltuari, T. Haslwanter, and M. Kofler, “Comparison of different methods for assessment of spasticity,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 442, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. Liepert, “Evidence-based methods in motor rehabilitation after stroke,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 388–393, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. D. Manning, S. A. Tolhurst, and P. Bawa, “Proprioceptive reaction times and long-latency reflexes in humans,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 155–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Mayr, M. Kofler, E. Quirbach, H. Matzak, K. Fröhlich, and L. Saltuari, “Prospective, blinded, randomized crossover study of gait rehabilitation in stroke patients using the Lokomat gait orthosis,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 307–314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Weiler, P. L. Gribble, and J. A. Pruszynski, “Goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 3242–3254, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J.-S. Blouin, T. J. Inglis, and G. P. Siegmund, “Startle responses elicited by whiplash perturbations,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 573, no. 3, pp. 857–867, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. W. H. Mang, G. P. Siegmund, H. J. Brown, S. C. Goonetilleke, and J.-S. Blouin, “Loud preimpact tones reduce the cervical multifidus muscle response during rear-end collisions: a potential method for reducing whiplash injuries,” Spine Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 153–161, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. P. Siegmund, “What occupant kinematics and neuromuscular responses tell us about whiplash injury,” Spine, vol. 36, no. 25, supplement, pp. S175–S179, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Landis and W. Hunt, The Startle Pattern, Farrar & Rinehart, Oxford, UK, 1939.
  22. P. Brown, J. C. Rothwell, P. D. Thompson, T. C. Britton, B. L. Day, and C. D. Marsden, “New observations on the normal auditory startle reflex in man,” Brain, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 1891–1902, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Davis, E. A. Antoniadis, D. G. Amaral, and J. T. Winslow, “Acoustic startle reflex in rhesus monkeys: a review,” Reviews in the Neurosciences, vol. 19, no. 2-3, pp. 171–185, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Valls-Sole, “Assessment of excitability in brainstem circuits mediating the blink reflex and the startle reaction,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. L. Braff, C. Grillon, and M. A. Geyer, “Gating and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenic patients,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 206–215, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Matsumoto, P. Fuh, M. Nigro, and M. Hallett, “Physiological abnormalities in hereditary hyperekplexia,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. R. Swerdlow, J. Paulsen, D. L. Braff, N. Butters, M. A. Geyer, and M. R. Swenson, “Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic and tactile startle response in patients with Huntington's disease,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 192–200, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Oguro, H. Aiba, and H. Hojo, “Different responses to auditory and somaesthetic stimulation in patients with an excessive startle: a report of pediatric experience,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1266–1272, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. Kumari, J. A. Gray, M. A. Geyer et al., “Neural correlates of tactile prepulse inhibition: a functional MRI study in normal and schizophrenic subjects,” Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 99–113, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Zebardast, M. J. Crowley, M. H. Bloch et al., “Brain mechanisms for prepulse inhibition in adults with Tourette syndrome: initial findings,” Psychiatry Research—Neuroimaging, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 33–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. S. Yeomans, L. Li, B. W. Scott, and P. W. Frankland, “Tactile, acoustic and vestibular systems sum to elicit the startle reflex,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. R. Bisdorff, A. M. Bronstein, M. A. Gresty, C. J. Wolsley, A. D. Vies, and A. Young, “EMG-responses to sudden onset free fall,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 115, no. sup520, pp. 347–349, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. B. Oude Nijhuis, J. H. J. Allum, J. Valls-Solé, S. Overeem, and B. R. Bloem, “First trial postural reactions to unexpected balance disturbances: a comparison with the acoustic startle reaction,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 2704–2712, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. J. Ravichandran, C. F. Honeycutt, J. Shemmell, and E. J. Perreault, “Instruction-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch reflex is associated with indicators of startle,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Valls-Solé, “Contribution of subcortical motor pathways to the execution of ballistic movements,” Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 57, pp. 554–562, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  36. T. D. Blumenthal, B. N. Cuthbert, D. L. Filion, S. Hackley, O. V. Lipp, and A. Van Boxtel, “Committee report: guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies,” Psychophysiology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. N. Carlsen, R. Chua, J. T. Inglis, D. J. Sanderson, and I. M. Franks, “Prepared movements are elicited early by startle,” Journal of Motor Behavior, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 253–264, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Kofler, J. Müller, and J. Valls-Solé, “Auditory startle responses as a probe of brainstem function in healthy subjects and patients with movement disorders,” Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 58, pp. 232–248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Valls-Solé, H. Kumru, and M. Kofler, “Interaction between startle and voluntary reactions in humans,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 187, no. 4, pp. 497–507, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Hori, A. Yasuhara, H. Naito, and M. Yasuhara, “Blink reflex elicited by auditory stimulation in the rabbit,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 49–59, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. N. Carlsen, C. J. Dakin, R. Chua, and I. M. Franks, “Startle produces early response latencies that are distinct from stimulus intensity effects,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Valls-Solé, J. C. Rothwell, F. Goulart, G. Cossu, and E. Muñoz, “Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 516, no. 3, pp. 931–938, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. D. Campbell, J. W. Squair, R. Chua, J. T. Inglis, and M. G. Carpenter, “First trial and StartReact effects induced by balance perturbations to upright stance,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 2236–2245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. O. P. Sanders, D. N. Savin, R. A. Creath, and M. W. Rogers, “Protective balance and startle responses to sudden freefall in standing humans,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 586, pp. 8–12, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Nonnekes, M. G. Carpenter, J. T. Inglis, J. Duysens, and V. Weerdesteyn, “What startles tell us about control of posture and gait,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 53, pp. 131–138, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Cattell, “The influence of the intensity of the stimulus on the length of the reaction time,” Brain, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 512–515, 1886. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Piéron, “II. Recherches sur les lois de variation des temps de latence sensorielle en fonction des intensités excitatrices,” L'année Psychologique, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17–96, 1913. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. P. Overbosch, R. De Wijk, T. J. R. De Jonge, and E. P. Köster, “Temporal integration and reaction times in human smell,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 615–626, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Z. Bujas, S. Szabo, D. Ajduković, and D. Mayer, “Interaction between stimuli with different taste qualities evaluated by reaction time,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1120–1126, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Shemmell, “Interactions between stretch and startle reflexes produce task-appropriate rapid postural reactions,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 9, article 2, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Valls-Solé, M. Kofler, H. Kumru, J. M. Castellote, and M. T. Sanegre, “Startle-induced reaction time shortening is not modified by prepulse inhibition,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 541–548, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. Marinovic and J. R. Tresilian, “Triggering prepared actions by sudden sounds: reassessing the evidence for a single mechanism,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 13–32, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. F. Honeycutt, U. A. Tresch, and E. J. Perreault, “Startling acoustic stimuli can evoke fast hand extension movements in stroke survivors,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 160–164, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. K. Jankelowitz and J. G. Colebatch, “The acoustic startle reflex in ischemic stroke,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 114–116, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Sohtaoğlu, M. E. Kiziltan, A. Gündüz, and M. Bozluolçay, “Startle responses after different stimulus modalities differ in stroke,” Neurophysiologie Clinique, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 193–199, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. N. Lewis, C. D. MacKinnon, and E. J. Perreault, “The effect of task instruction on the excitability of spinal and supraspinal reflex pathways projecting to the biceps muscle,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 413–425, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Shemmell, H. A. Je, and E. J. Perreault, “The differential role of motor cortex in stretch reflex modulation induced by changes in environmental mechanics and verbal instruction,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 42, pp. 13255–13263, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. N. Carlsen, R. Chua, J. T. Inglis, D. J. Sanderson, and I. M. Franks, “Startle response is dishabituated during a reaction time task,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 152, no. 4, pp. 510–518, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Valls-Solé, F. Valldeoriola, J. L. Molinuevo, G. Cossu, and F. Nobbe, “Prepulse modulation of the startle reaction and the blink reflex in normal human subjects,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Kofler, J. Müller, L. Reggiani, and J. Valls-Solé, “Influence of gender on auditory startle responses,” Brain Research, vol. 921, no. 1-2, pp. 206–210, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. J. Forgaard, I. M. Franks, D. Maslovat, L. Chin, and R. Chua, “Voluntary reaction time and long-latency reflex modulation,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 3386–3399, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Chokroverty, T. Walczak, and W. Hening, “Human startle reflex: technique and criteria for abnormal response,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 236–242, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Hatayama and K. Shimizu, “An examination by forearm EMG on pain reaction time to radiant heat,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 1139–1146, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Pertovaara, T. Kauppila, and M. M. Hämäläinen, “Influence of skin temperature on heat pain threshold in humans,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 497–503, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Valls-Solé, J. M. Castellote, M. Kofler, J. Casanova-Molla, H. Kumru, and P. Schestatsky, “Awareness of temperature and pain sensation,” Journal of Pain, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 620–627, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Lamontagne, F. Malouin, C. L. Richards, and F. Dumas, “Evaluation of reflex- and nonreflex-induced muscle resistance to stretch in adults with spinal cord injury using hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry,” Physical Therapy, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 964–978, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. F. Fleuren, M. J. Nederhand, and H. J. Hermens, “Influence of posture and muscle length on stretch reflex activity in poststroke patients with spasticity,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 981–988, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. H. Kakebeeke, H. Lechner, M. Baumberger, J. Denoth, D. Michel, and H. Knecht, “The importance of posture on the isokinetic assessment of spasticity,” Spinal Cord, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 236–243, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. M. Castellote, J. Valls-Solé, and M. T. Sanegre, “Ballistic reactions under different motor sets,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. S. Redfern, M. L. T. M. Müller, J. R. Jennings, and J. M. Furman, “Attentional dynamics in postural control during perturbations in young and older adults,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. B298–B303, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. Kumru and J. Valls-Solé, “Excitability of the pathways mediating the startle reaction before execution of a voluntary movement,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 427–432, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Kofler, J. Müller, L. Reggiani, and J. Valls-Solé, “Influence of age on auditory startle responses in humans,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 307, no. 2, pp. 65–68, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Brown, B. L. Day, J. C. Rothwell, P. D. Thompson, and C. D. Marsden, “The effect of posture on the normal and pathological auditory startle reflex,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 892–897, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Valls-Solé, F. Valldeoriola, E. Tolosa, and F. Nobbe, “Habituation of the auditory startle reaction is reduced during preparation for execution of a motor task in normal human subjects,” Brain Research, vol. 751, no. 1, pp. 155–159, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. P. Siegmund, J. Timothy Inglis, and D. J. Sanderson, “Startle response of human neck muscles sculpted by readiness to perform ballistic head movements,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 535, no. 1, pp. 289–300, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. B. J. Anthony and F. K. Graham, “Blink reflex modification by selective attention: evidence for the modulation of ‘automatic’ processing,” Biological Psychology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43–59, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. J. Schicatano and T. D. Blumenthal, “The effects of caffeine and directed attention on acoustic startle habituation,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 145–150, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. E. Richards, “Development of multimodal attention in young infants: modification of the startle reflex by attention,” Psychophysiology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. V. S. Gurfinkel, M. I. Lipshits, and F. G. Lestienne, “Anticipatory neck muscle activity associated with rapid arm movements,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 94, no. 1-2, pp. 104–108, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. Pozzo, M. Ouamer, and C. Gentil, “Simulating mechanical consequences of voluntary movement upon whole-body equilibrium: the arm-raising paradigm revisited,” Biological Cybernetics, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. Ng, C. McNee, J. Kieser, and M. Farella, “Neck and shoulder muscle activity during standardized work-related postural tasks,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 556–563, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. F. Sanders, Elements of Human Performance: Reaction Processes and Attention in Human Skill, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1998.
  83. J. M. Castellote, H. Kumru, A. Queralt, and J. Valls-Solé, “A startle speeds up the execution of externally guided saccades,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 129–136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. D. MacKinnon, D. P. Allen, T. Shiratori, and M. W. Rogers, “Early and unintentional release of planned motor actions during motor cortical preparation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e63417, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. Queralt, J. Valls-Solé, and J. M. Castellote, “Speeding up gait initiation and gait-pattern with a startling stimulus,” Gait and Posture, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 185–190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Valls-Solé, A. Solé, F. Valldeoriola, E. Muñoz, L. E. Gonzalez, and E. S. Tolosa, “Reaction time and acoustic startle in normal human subjects,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. 97–100, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. N. Carlsen, M. A. Hunt, J. T. Inglis, D. J. Sanderson, and R. Chua, “Altered triggering of a prepared movement by a startling stimulus,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 1857–1863, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. V. J. Ravichandran, J. B. Shemmell, and E. J. Perreault, “Mechanical perturbations applied during impending movement evoke startle-like responses,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC '09), vol. 2009, pp. 2947–2950, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. P. W. Fink, J. A. S. Kelso, and V. K. Jirsa, “Perturbation-induced false starts as a test of the Jirsa-Kelso excitator model,” Journal of Motor Behavior, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 147–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Queralt, J. Valls-Solé, and J. M. Castellote, “The effects of a startle on the sit-to-stand manoeuvre,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 603–609, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. T. Sanegre, J. M. Castellote, P. Haggard, and J. Valls-Solé, “The effects of a startle on awareness of action,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 527–531, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. W. E. McIlroy and B. E. Maki, “Early activation of arm muscles follows external perturbation of upright stance,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 177–180, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. H. C. Diener, F. B. Horak, and L. M. Nashner, “Influence of stimulus parameters on human postural responses,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1888–1905, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D. S. Marigold and A. E. Patla, “Strategies for dynamic stability during locomotion on a slippery surface: effects of prior experience and knowledge,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 339–353, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Robert and M. L. Latash, “Time evolution of the organization of multi-muscle postural responses to sudden changes in the external force applied at the trunk level,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 438, no. 2, pp. 238–241, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. R. Mangun and L. A. Buck, “Sustained visual-spatial attention produces costs and benefits in response time and evoked neural activity,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 189–200, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. W. Marinovic, F. L. Y. Cheung, S. Riek, and J. R. Tresilian, “The effect of attention on the release of anticipatory timing actions,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 548–555, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. G. Horstmann, “The surprise-attention link: a review,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1339, no. 1, pp. 106–115, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus