Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9626390, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9626390
Research Article

Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices

1Barbara Jakše s.p., SI-1230 Domžale, Slovenia
2Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Gortanova 22, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloška 2, SI-1525 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Correspondence should be addressed to Jernej Pajek; is.jl-inu.fm@kejap.jenrej

Received 8 November 2016; Revised 8 February 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017; Published 28 March 2017

Academic Editor: Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi

Copyright © 2017 Boštjan Jakše et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Berkow and N. Barnard, “Vegetarian diets and weight status,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 175–188, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), “Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants,” The Lancet, vol. 387, no. 10026, pp. 1377–1396, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Swinburn, G. Sacks, and E. Ravussin, “Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1453–1456, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. S. Volek, S. D. Phinney, C. E. Forsythe et al., “Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet,” Lipids, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 297–309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Y. Foo, E. R. Heller, J. Wykrzykowska et al., “Vascular effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 36, pp. 15418–15423, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. M. Fleming, “The effect of high-protein diets on coronary blood flow,” Angiology, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 817–826, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Coppola, F. Natale, A. Torino et al., “The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study,” Seizure, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 260–265, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Noto, A. Goto, T. Tsujimoto, and M. Noda, “Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 1, Article ID e55030, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. D. Barnard, A. R. Scialli, G. Turner-McGrievy, A. J. Lanou, and J. Glass, “The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 991–997, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Mishra, J. Xu, U. Agarwal, J. Gonzales, S. Levin, and N. D. Barnard, “A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: The GEICO study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 718–724, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Drozek, H. Diehl, M. Nakazawa, T. Kostohryz, D. Morton, and J. H. Shubrook, “Short-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention program for reducing selected chronic disease risk factors in individuals living in rural appalachia: a pilot cohort study,” Advances in Preventive Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 798184, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. L. T. Le and J. Sabaté, “Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts,” Nutrients, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2131–2147, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Heber, J. M. Ashley, H.-J. Wang, and R. M. Elashoff, “Clinical evaluation of a minimal intervention meal replacement regimen for weight reduction,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 608–614, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. M. Davis, C. Coleman, J. Kiel et al., “Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. R. Wing and S. Phelan, “Long-term weight loss maintenance,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 222S–225S, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Fildes, J. Charlton, C. Rudisill, P. Littlejohns, A. T. Prevost, and M. C. Gulliford, “Probability of an obese person attaining normal body weight: cohort study using electronic health records,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. e54–e59, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Johansson, M. Neovius, and E. Hemmingsson, “Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 14–23, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. D. Coleman, J. R. Kiel, A. H. Mitola, J. S. Langford, K. N. Davis, and L. M. Arterburn, “Effectiveness of a Medifast meal replacement program on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: a multicenter systematic retrospective chart review study,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, article 77, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. Li, L. Treyzon, S. Chen, E. Yan, G. Thames, and C. L. Carpenter, “Protein-enriched meal replacements do not adversely affect liver, kidney or bone density: an outpatient randomized controlled trial,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, article 72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. A. Millstein, “Measuring outcomes in adult weight loss studies that include diet and physical activity: a systematic review,” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2014, Article ID 421423, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. S. Rizzo, K. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Sabate, and G. E. Fraser, “Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 113, no. 12, pp. 1610–1619, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. D. Barnard, S. M. Levin, and Y. Yokoyama, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 954–969, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. R. Folsom, S. A. Kaye, T. A. Sellers et al., “Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women,” JAMA, vol. 269, no. 4, pp. 483–487, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Tchernof and J.-P. Després, “Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 359–404, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. A. Bray and B. M. Popkin, “Dietary fat intake does affect obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1157–1173, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. J. Rolls, “The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 268S–271S, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. McDougall, L. E. Thomas, C. McDougall et al., “Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 13, p. 99, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. M. Turner-McGrievy, C. R. Davidson, E. E. Wingard, S. Wilcox, and E. A. Frongillo, “Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets,” Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 350–358, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Connolly, T. Romano, and M. Patruno, “Selections from current literature: effects of dieting and exercise on resting metabolic rate and implications for weight management,” Family Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. M. Johnstone, S. D. Murison, J. S. Duncan, K. A. Rance, and J. R. Speakman, “Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 941–948, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Stiegler and A. Cunliffe, “The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 239–262, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Gornall and R. G. Villani, “Short-term changes in body composition and metabolism with severe dieting and resistance exercise,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. B. Chaston, J. B. Dixon, and P. E. O'Brien, “Changes in fat-free mass during significant weight loss: a systematic review,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 743–750, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. Janssen and R. Ross, “Effects of sex on the change in visceral, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to weight loss,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1035–1046, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Rice, I. Janssen, R. Hudson, and R. Ross, “Effects of aerobic or resistance exercise and/or diet on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in obese men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 684–691, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. T. Miller, S. F. Fraser, I. Levinger et al., “The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e81692, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. A. Raynor, A. M. Anderson, G. D. Miller et al., “Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 731–742, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Vázquez, C. Montagna, F. Alcaraz et al., “Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1226–1232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Lansky and K. D. Brownell, “Estimates of food quantity and calories: errors in self-report among obese patients,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 727–732, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. Archer, G. Pavela, and C. J. Lavie, “The inadmissibility of what we eat in America and NHANES dietary data in nutrition and obesity research and the scientific formulation of national dietary guidelines,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 911–926, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Dwyer-Lindgren, G. Freedman, R. E. Engell et al., “Prevalence of physical activity and obesity in US counties, 2001–2011: a road map for action,” Population Health Metrics, vol. 11, no. 1, article 7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. F. Hollis, C. M. Gullion, V. J. Stevens et al., “Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 118–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Pietrobelli, F. Rubiano, M.-P. St-Onge, and S. B. Heymsfield, “New bioimpedance analysis system: improved phenotyping with whole-body analysis,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1479–1484, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus