Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 1547452, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1547452
Research Article

Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Proliferation and Inflammation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

1Institution of Drug Clinical Trial, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510317, China
2Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study, 28 Western Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan Province 421001, China
3Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, China
4Academy of Pediatrics, University of South China, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xu-ping Qin; moc.liamtoh@333pxniq

Received 16 May 2018; Accepted 30 July 2018; Published 13 August 2018

Academic Editor: Goutam Ghosh Choudhury

Copyright © 2018 Si-yu Zeng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. Protein arginine methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) protects against vascular injury-induced intimal hyperplasia; however, little is known about the role of PRMT2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced VSMCs proliferation and inflammation. This research aims to determine whether PRMT2 inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Materials and Methods. PRMT2 overexpression was used to elucidate the role of PRMT2 in Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation and inflammation. Western blotting and reverse transcriptional PCR were adopted to detect protein and mRNA expression severally. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. Results. Ang II significantly reduced mRNA and protein levels of PRMT2 in VSMCs in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Results of PRMT2 overexpression indicated that PRMT2 inhibited proliferation of VSMCs stimulated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 hours. Furthermore, overexpression of PRMT2 reduced Ang II-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in VSMCs. Conclusions. These findings suggest that PRMT2 alleviates Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation and inflammation, providing a new mechanism about how Ang II mediated VSMCs proliferation and inflammation.

1. Introduction

Ang II is the primary effector hormone of the renin-angiotensin system that plays a critical role in physiological and pathological processes of cardiovascular system. Not only does it mediate immediate physiological effects such as vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation, but it also results in cardiovascular diseases (such as hypertension and atherosclerosis) associated with proliferation and inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) [13]. Even though several studies have been studied for many years about how Ang II induces VSMCs proliferation and inflammation, additional details are still needed to provide potential targets for developing drugs against cardiovascular diseases.

As a key member of protein arginine methyltransferase family, PRMT2 could catalyze transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to arginine residues of substrates proteins. This enzyme contains a highly conserved catalytic Ado-Met binding domain and a unique Src homology 3 domain that binds proteins with proline-rich motifs [4, 5]. Although not initially described to have methyltransferase activity [5], subsequent studies indicate that PRMT2 binds estrogen receptor-ɑ and then enhances estrogen-related transcription through its Ado-Met domain, indirectly demonstrating the methyltransferase activity of its own [6, 7]. Depletion of PRMT2 inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells by suppressing transcriptional activity of cyclin D1 [8, 9]. A series of PRMT2-dependent genes, involved in cell cycle checkpoint and G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle control, have been identified through WGCNA analysis of PRMT2 signature [9]. Further, vascular injury to PRMT2 (-/-) arteries induced by wire injury leads to intimal hyperplasia [10]. These studies indicate PRMT2 may regulate VSMCs proliferation in cardiovascular system; however, little is known about the role of PRMT2 in Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation.

In vivo and in vitro studies show that Ang II induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in VSMCs; they have been identified as inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-1β, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) [1113]. PRMT2 loss of function accelerates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophagic inflammation [14]. No evidence, however, has been provided about the role of PRMT2 in Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation. In this research, we examined the hypothesis that PRMT2 inhibits cell proliferation and inflammation in VSMCs treated with Ang II.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Cell Culture

Human aortic cell line of VSMCs was originated from ATCC cell bank (Manassas, VA, USA). Cells were cultured with Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum in incubator with 5% carbon dioxide at 37°C. Before stimulated with Ang II or Ang II plus PRMT2 plasmid, cells were needed to incubate for 24 hours in DMEM with 0.1% FBS.

2.2. PRMT2 Overexpression

PRMT2 plasmids were constructed in the vector pcDNA3.1 by a commercial service (Sangon, Shanghai, China), while pcDNA3.1 vectors were adopted as the control. PRMT2 plasmids or control plasmids (8 μg) were transiently transfected into VSMCs by adding themselves to 15 μL lipofectamine 2000 (11668019, Thermo Scientific, Shanghai, China) per 21 cm2 dish. These cells were stimulated with lipofectamine 2000, or Ang II, pcDNA3.1 vectors, and lipofectamine 2000, or Ang II, PRMT2 plasmids, and lipofectamine 2000.

2.3. Total Protein Extraction

Cell protein was extracted using RIPA lysis buffer (P0013B, Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China), including 50 mM Tris (pH 7.4), 150 mM sodium chloride, 1% (wt/vol) Triton X-100, 1% (wt/vol) sodium deoxycholate, and 0.1% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. Phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF; ST506, Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China) should be added to the lysis buffer before application with a final concentration of 1 mmol/L. After cells were incubated with RIPA lysis buffer for 30 minutes on ice, the solution was centrifuged at 14000 g for 5 minutes to remove cell debris. And then the protein concentration of the supernatant was determined using BCA protein assay kit (P0010, Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China). Finally, equal total content of protein was used for western blotting.

2.4. Western Blotting

Cell protein was separated in SDS gel electrophoresis, transferred to polyvinylidine difluoride membranes (PVDFs), and then incubated with primary antibody overnight at 4°C. These following primary antibodies were used, respectively: PRMT2 antibody (ab66763, Abcam, MA, USA), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody (ab152112, Abcam, MA, USA), interleukin 6 antibody (12153, CST, MA, USA), interleukin 1β antibody (12703, CST, MA, USA), and β-actin (SC4778, Santa Cruz, TX, USA). These PVDFs were then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Relative levels of immunoreactive protein were detected by chemiluminescence and then quantified with Image J software.

2.5. Reverse Transcription PCR

Reverse transcription PCR was carried out as described previously [15]. Primers for PRMT2 and GADPH were designed and synthesized by Sangon (Shanghai, China). Primer for PRMT2: 5′-AGAAGGCTGGGGCTCATTTG-3′ (forward primer), 5′-AGGGGCCATCCACAGTCTTC-3′ (reverse primer); Primer for GADPH, 5′-ACCACAGTCCATGCCATCAC-3′ (forward primer), 5′-TCCACCACCC TGTTGCTGTA-3′ (reverse primer). Total cellular RNA was extracted using Trizol, and then it was used to synthesize the first-strand complementary DNA using reverse transcription kit (4387406, Thermo Scientific, Shanghai, China). PCR amplification profiles were described as follows: 94°C for 2 minutes, 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 seconds, 55°C for 30 seconds and 72°C for 30 seconds, and finally 72°C for 2 minutes. Equal amount of both PRMT2 and GADPH RT-PCR products was loaded and then separated on 2% agarose gels. Optical densities of ethidium bromide-stained DNA bands were quantitated, and the results were expressed as ratio of PRMT2 to GADPH (PRMT2 /GADPH).

2.6. Assay of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT)

MTT assay was utilized to measure cell viability as described previously [15]. It is briefly described as follows: first, VSMCs were continuously incubated for 4 hours in cell media with 10 μL MTT (5g /L); second, cells were incubated with 150 μL DMSO for 10 minutes at room temperature; third, the optical density (OD) of VSMCs was measured under 490 nm by automatic enzyme-linked immune-adsorbent assay system.

2.7. Cell Cycle Distribution

Flow cytometry was adopted to evaluate and analyze cycle distribution of VSMCs as described previously [15]. Firstly, cells were harvested via trypsin digestion, washed with precooled phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and then fixed for 24 hours using precooled 75% ethyl alcohol. Next, these cells were coincubated with 100 μL RNase A for 30 min at 37°C and then with 500 μL staining liquids for 30 min at 4°C when avoiding light. Finally, these cells were assayed by flow cytometer to determine cells percentage in each phase of cell cycle. At least 5000 cells were counted for each analysis.

2.8. Statistical Analysis

Data were expressed as means ± SD. Statistical significance was determined by unpaired Student's t-test between two groups and by one-way or two-way ANOVA among at least three groups followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test (Prism 7.0; GraphPad Software, CA, USA), and the value of P<0.05 (two-sided) was considered significant.

3. Results

3.1. Ang II Decreased PRMT2 Expression in Proliferative VSMCs

As shown in Figure 1, Ang II promoted VSMCs proliferation, indicated by the increase of cell viability and PCNA protein level, in VSMCs stimulated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 12 and 24 hours, or different concentration of Ang II such as 1 and 100 nmol/L. Concurrently, Ang II significantly reduced mRNA and protein levels of PRMT2 in VSMCs in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner (Figure 2). These parallel results suggested that Ang II diminished PRMT2 expression in proliferative VSMCs.

Figure 1: Ang II induced VSMCs proliferation in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. (a-b) Dosage curve of cell proliferation when cells were treated with different concentrations of Ang II for 24 hours. (a) Cell viability; (b) PCNA protein level; P<0.05 versus 0 nM. (c-d) Time curve of VSMCs proliferation when cells were treated with 100 nM Ang II. (c) Cell viability; (d) PCNA protein level; P<0.05 versus 0 h. Ang II represents angiotensin II; VSMCs represent vascular smooth muscle cells; n=3 independent experiments.
Figure 2: Ang II reduced PRMT2 expression in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. (a-b) Dosage curve of PRMT2 expression when cells were stimulated with different concentrations of Ang II for 24 hours. (a) PRMT2 mRNA level; (b) PRMT2 protein level; P<0.05 versus 0 nM. (c-d) Time curve of PRMT2 expression when cells were stimulated with 100 nM Ang II. (c) PRMT2 mRNA level; (d) PRMT2 protein level; P<0.05 versus 0 h. Ang II represents angiotensin II; VSMCs represent vascular smooth muscle cells; n=3 independent experiments.
3.2. PRMT2 Protected against Ang II-Induced VSMCs Proliferation

PRMT2 overexpression was used to determine the effect of PRMT2 on Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation. As shown in Figure 3(a), PRMT2 protein level was significantly elevated in VSMCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-PRMT2 for 48 hours compared with vector group, demonstrating the reliability of PRMT2 plasmid. In accordance with results of Figure 1, VSMCs were treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 hours to induce VSMCs proliferation. Figures 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) showed that PRMT2 overexpression remarkably decreased PCNA protein level and cell viability induced by Ang II. Results of flow cytometry indicated that Ang II stimulation reduced the proportion of G0/G1 phase cells but increased that of S phase cells compared with vector group, whereas PRMT2 overexpression reversed Ang II-induced changes in proportion of G0/G1 and S phase cells (Figures 3(e) and 3(f)). Thus, PRMT2 overexpression could attenuate Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation.

Figure 3: PRMT2 overexpression attenuated Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation. (a) PRMT2 protein level. Cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-PRMT2 for 48 hours. (b-f) After transfected with pcDNA3.1-PRMT2 for 24 hours, VSMCs were treated with 100 nM Ang II for 24 hours. (b) PRMT2 protein level; (c) PCNA protein level; (d) cell viability; (e) representative results of cell cycle distribution; (f) cell number. Ang II represents angiotensin II; VSMCs represent vascular smooth muscle cells. P<0.05 versus vector group, #P<0.05 versus Ang II group. n=3 independent experiments.
3.3. PRMT2 Inhibited Ang II-Induced VSMCs Inflammation

In addition to leukocytes, VSMCs can be another crucial source of proinflammatory cytokines in the vessel wall [11, 12]. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and IL -6 have been recognized as markers of inflammation [16]. As shown in Figure 4, protein levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were markedly elevated in Ang II group compared with control group, whereas upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 protein levels was reversed by PRMT2 overexpression. Therefore, PRMT2 prevented Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation.

Figure 4: PRMT2 overexpression suppressed Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation. After transfection with pcDNA3.1-PRMT2 for 24 hours, VSMCs were treated with 100 nM Ang II for 24 hours. (a) IL-1β protein level. (b) IL-6 protein level. Ang II represents angiotensin II; VSMCs represent vascular smooth muscle cells. P<0.05 versus vector group, #P<0.05 versus Ang II group. n=3 independent experiments.

4. Discussion

In this research, we reported two interrelated discoveries: (1) PRMT2 protected against Ang II- induced VSMCs proliferation, and (2) PRMT2 inhibited Ang II-induced inflammation.

Ang II is a critical mediator that induces VSMCs proliferation through AT1 receptor activation [17]. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK, is required in Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation [18]. Krüppel-like factor (KLF5), a downstream signal of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, activates Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through cyclin D1 gene transcription via functional interaction with c-Jun [19]. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activation mediates Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation via ERK1/2 activation [20]. These findings show that MAPK signaling pathway plays a key role in Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation.

Besides MAPK signaling pathway, oxidative stress, activation of nuclear transcriptional factors, and other signaling pathways also mediated Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by TGF-β receptor (through Smad2/3 pathway), Src-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and NADPH oxidase-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species formation promote Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation [1, 21, 22]. Nuclear transcriptional factors cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) could induce Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation [23, 24]. Further, complement 3a (C3a), Fat1 (an atypical cadherin), and notch signaling pathway contribute to Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation [22, 25, 26].

In recent years, researchers are paying more and more attention to epigenetic mechanisms that cause Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation. Recent epigenetic research mainly focuses on noncoding RNA (such as microRNA and long noncoding RNA) and DNA methylation. It has been reported that microRNA-130a, microRNA-761, and microRNA-155 could promote Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation [2729]. Protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 participates in posttranslational modification through arginine methylation of histones, RNA binding proteins, and transcriptional factors [5, 7, 30]. Our results showed PRMT2 overexpression protected against Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation, thereby helping better understand the signaling network of Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation.

NF-κB activation and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation play crucial role in Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation. NF-kB and CREB promotes Ang II mediated production of TNF-α and IL-6 in VSMCs treated with Ang II [24, 31, 32]. NF-κB, CREB, and ERK-dependent histone acetylation mediated by p300 and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) are also required in Ang II-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression [33]. Results of TLR4 inhibitor, antibody, and siRNA indicate that TLR4 activation plays a key role in Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation [34, 35]. Our present findings showed that PRMT2 negatively mediated Ang II-induced VSMCs inflammation, supplementing a new mechanism of VSMCs inflammation induced by Ang II.

5. Conclusion

In summary, the present study reveals that PRMT2 could inhibit Ang II-induced proliferation and inflammation of VSMCs. This will help us better understand underlying mechanisms of Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation and inflammation, providing further basis for PRMT2 as a potential target against cardiovascular diseases associated with VSMCs proliferation and inflammation. In vivo research, however, is still needed to examine whether PRMT2 mediates VSMCs proliferation and inflammation and vascular remodeling in Ang II-induced hypertensive model.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant numbers 81173060, 8150041); the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant number 2015A030310076); the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (Grant number 2016A020226005); the Hunan Provincial Education Department Document (Grant number 2014-405); the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant number A2014159); and the Science Foundation of Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital (Grant number YZ2015-008).

References

  1. L. Te Riet, J. H. M. van Esch, A. J. M. Roks, A. H. van den Meiracker, and A. H. J. Danser, “Hypertension: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system alterations,” Circulation Research, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 960–975, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Meng, Q. Zeng, Q. Lu et al., “Valsartan Attenuates Atherosclerosis via Up-regulating the Th2 Immune Response in Prolonged Angiotensin II-Treated ApoE (-/-) Mice,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 21, pp. 143–153., 2015. View at Google Scholar
  3. Y. Wang, C. Tikellis, M. C. Thomas, and J. Golledge, “Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Katsanis, M.-L. Yaspo, and E. M. C. Fisher, “Identification and mapping of a novel human gene, HRMT1L1, homologous to the rat protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) gene,” Mammalian Genome, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 526–529, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. S. Scott, S. E. Antonarakis, M. D. Lalioti, C. Rossier, P. A. Silver, and M. F. Henry, “Identification and characterization of two putative human arginine methyltransferases (HRMT1L1 and HRMT1L2),” Genomics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 330–340, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Qi, J. Chang, Y. Zhu, A. V. Yeldandi, S. M. Rao, and Y. Zhu, “Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 as a Coactivator for Estrogen Receptor α,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 32, pp. 28624–28630, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. Meyer, S. S. Wolf, and M. Obendorf, “PRMT2, a member of the protein arginine methyltransferase family, is a coactivator of the androgen receptor,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 107, no. 1-2, pp. 1–14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Zhong, R.-X. Cao, T. Hong et al., “Identification and expression analysis of a novel transcript of the human PRMT2 gene resulted from alternative polyadenylation in breast cancer,” Gene, vol. 487, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. G. Oh, P. Bailey, E. Dray et al., “PRMT2 and RORg expression are associated with breast cancer survival outcomes,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 28, pp. 1166–1185, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  10. T. Yoshimoto, M. Boehm, M. Olive et al., “The arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 binds RB and regulates E2F function,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 312, no. 11, pp. 2040–2053, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. X.-L. Chen, P. E. Tummala, M. T. Olbrych, R. W. Alexander, and R. M. Medford, “Angiotensin II induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells,” Circulation Research, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 952–959, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Kranzhöfer, J. Schmidt, C. A. H. Pfeiffer, S. Hagl, P. Libby, and W. Kübler, “Angiotensin induces inflammatory activation of human vascular smooth muscle cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1623–1629, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. E. Tummala, X.-L. Chen, C. L. Sundell et al., “Angiotensin II induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in rat vasculature: a potential link between the renin-angiotensin system and atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1223–1229, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Dalloneau, P. Lopes Pereira, V. Brault, E. G. Nabel, and Y. Hérault, “Prmt2 regulates the lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in lungs and macrophages,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 4826–4834, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X.-P. Qin, F. Ye, C.-P. Hu, D.-F. Liao, H.-W. Deng, and Y.-J. Li, “Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on angiotensin II-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 488, no. 1-3, pp. 45–49, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Pacurari, R. Kafoury, P. B. Tchounwou, and K. Ndebele, “The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in vascular inflammation and remodeling,” International Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 689360, 13 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. C. Montezano, A. N. D. Cat, F. J. Rios, and R. M. Touyz, “Angiotensin II and vascular injury,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 16, article 431, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Jia, G. Cheng, D. M. Gangahar, and D. K. Agrawal, “Involvement of connexin 43 in angiotensin II-induced migration and proliferation of saphenous vein smooth muscle cells via the MAPK-AP-1 signaling pathway,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 882–890, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Liu, J.-K. Wen, L.-H. Dong, B. Zheng, and M. Han, “Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 5 mediates cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation via interaction with c-Jun in Ang II-induced VSMCs,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. El Mabrouk, R. M. Touyz, and E. L. Schiffrin, “Differential ANG II-induced growth activation pathways in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells from SHR,” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 281, no. 1, pp. H30–H39, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Bokemeyer, U. Schmitz, and H. J. Kramer, “Angiotensin II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells requires an Src-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 549–558, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Ozasa, H. Akazawa, Y. Qin et al., “Notch activation mediates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling by promoting the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 859–865, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. P. Molnar, R. Perrault, S. Louis, and P. Zahradka, “The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mediates smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to angiotensin II,” Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Chen et al., “CBP knockdown inhibits angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation through downregulating NF-kB transcriptional activity,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 340, no. 1-2, pp. 55–62, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Y. Han, N. Fukuda, T. Ueno et al., “Role of complement 3a in the synthetic phenotype and angiotensin ii-production in vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 284–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Bruder-Nascimento, P. Chinnasamy, D. F. Riascos-Bernal et al., “Angiotensin II induces Fat1 expression/activation and vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 66, pp. 18–26, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. H. Wu, C. P. Hu, and X. P. Chen, “MicroRNA-130a mediates vascular smooth muscle cells in hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, pp. 1087–1093, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. R. Cho, C. Y. Lee, J. Lee et al., “MicroRNA-761 inhibits Angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by targeting mammalian target of rapamycin,” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L.-X. Yang, G. Liu, and G.-F. Zhu, “MicroRNA-155 inhibits angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,” Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 109–116, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. A. Blythe, S.-W. Cha, E. Tadjuidje, J. Heasman, and P. S. Klein, “β-catenin primes organizer gene expression by recruiting a histone H3 arginine 8 methyltransferase, Prmt2,” Developmental Cell, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 220–231, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Funakoshi, T. Ichiki, K. Ito, and A. Takeshita, “Induction of interleukin-6 expression by angiotensin II in rat vascular smooth muscle cells,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 118–125, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Han, M. S. Runge, and A. R. Brasier, “Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells through pleiotropic activation of nuclear factor-κb transcription factors,” Circulation Research, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 695–703, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Sahar, M. A. Reddy, C. Wong, L. Meng, M. Wang, and R. Natarajan, “Cooperation of SRC-1 and p300 With NF- B and CREB in Angiotensin II-Induced IL-6 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1528–1534, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. Ji, J. Liu, Z. Wang, and N. Liu, “Angiotensin II induces inflammatory response partly via toll-like receptor 4-dependent signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 23, no. 4-6, pp. 265–276, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Ji, J. Liu, N. Liu, Z. Wang, and C. Liu, “PPARα activator fenofibrate modulates angiotensin II-induced inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells via the TLR4-dependent signaling pathway,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1186–1197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar