Intermittent Hypoxia Enhances THP-1 Monocyte Adhesion and Chemotaxis and Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization via RAGE
Intermittent hypoxia increased RAGE expression and activates the NF-кB pathway in THP-1 monocytes. (a and b) RAGE expression of THP-1 cells exposed to IH compared to cells in normoxia over a period of 48 h. (c) Representative images of immunofluorescence staining showing the nuclear translocation of NF-кB p65 (green) in THP-1 cells. Scale bars indicate 10 μm. (d–f) Phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and IkBα protein expression and quantification of THP-1 cells exposed to IH compared with cells cultured under normoxia over a period of 48 h. (g–i) Phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and RAGE protein expression and quantification of NF-κB siRNA treated cells compared to untreated cells exposed to normoxia or IH. Data were represented as mean + SEM. represents significant difference compared with normoxic group, /#p<.05, p<.01, p<.001.