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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 2472508, 10 pages
Research Article

Second Blood Meal by Female Lutzomyia longipalpis: Enhancement by Oviposition and Its Effects on Digestion, Longevity, and Leishmania Infection

1Laboratory of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, 4365 Brasil Av., Leonidas Deane Building, Room 207, 21040-360 Manguinhos, RJ, Brazil
2Faculty of Health and Medicine, Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University, Furness Building, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK
3National Institute of Science and Technology for Molecular Entomology, 373 Carlos Chagas Filho Av., Center for Health Science, Building D, Basement, Room 5, Cidade Universitária, 21941-590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to F. A. Genta; moc.liamg@odnanrefatneg

Received 9 October 2017; Revised 11 January 2018; Accepted 15 February 2018; Published 25 March 2018

Academic Editor: Marlene Benchimol

Copyright © 2018 C. S. Moraes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds. We evaluated the impact of the second blood meal on longevity, protein digestion, trypsin activity, and Leishmania mexicana development within L. longipalpis gut. Mortality of blood-fed females increases after second blood meal as compared to sugar-fed females. Trypsin activity was lower during the second gonotrophic cycle. However, no difference in protein intake was observed between blood meals. There was no difference in the population size of Leishmania in the gut after both blood meals. In this work, we presented an optimized protocol for obtaining sufficient numbers of sand fly females fed on a second blood meal, and we described some physiological and parasitological aspects of the second gonotrophic cycle which might influence the vectorial competence of sand flies.