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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 2580181, 9 pages
Research Article

Standardized Duplex Ultrasound-Based Protocol for Early Diagnosis of Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis: Results of a Single-Institution Retrospective Cohort Study

1Department of Urological Robotic Surgery and Renal Transplantation, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy
2Department of Nephrology, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy
3Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy
4Intensive Care Unit and Regional ECMO Referral Centre, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Riccardo Campi; moc.liamg@ipmac.odraccir

Received 1 July 2017; Revised 16 October 2017; Accepted 25 October 2017; Published 11 April 2018

Academic Editor: Gelin Xu

Copyright © 2018 Vincenzo Li Marzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is the most frequent vascular complication after kidney transplantation (KT) and has been associated with potentially reversible refractory hypertension, graft dysfunction, and reduced patient survival. The aim of the study is to describe the outcomes of a standardized Duplex Ultrasound- (DU-) based screening protocol for early diagnosis of TRAS and for selection of patients potentially requiring endovascular intervention. We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected database of KT from January 1998 to select patients diagnosed with TRAS. The follow-up protocol was based on a risk-adapted, dynamic subdivision of eligible KT patients in different risk categories (RC) with different protocol strategies (PS). Of 598 patients included in the study, 52 (9%) patients had hemodynamically significant TRAS and underwent percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement. Technical and clinical success rates were 97% and 90%, respectively. 7 cases of restenosis were recorded at follow-up and treated with re-PTA plus stenting. Both DU imaging and clinical parameters improved after stent placement. Prospective high-quality studies are needed to test the efficacy and safety of our protocol in larger series. Accurate trial design and standardized reporting of patient outcomes will be key to address the current clinical needs.