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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 2876135, 12 pages
Research Article

Efficacy of rhBMP-2 Loaded PCL/β-TCP/bdECM Scaffold Fabricated by 3D Printing Technology on Bone Regeneration

1Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Institute of Translational Dental Sciences, BK21 PLUS Project, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 15073, Republic of Korea
3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Republic of Korea
4Research Institute, T&R Biofab Co., Ltd., Siheung 15073, Republic of Korea
5Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Jung-Bo Huh;

Received 30 October 2017; Revised 27 December 2017; Accepted 8 January 2018; Published 27 February 2018

Academic Editor: Oliver B. Betz

Copyright © 2018 Eun-Bin Bae et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold containing bone demineralized and decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM) and human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on bone regeneration. Scaffolds were divided into PCL/β-TCP, PCL/β-TCP/bdECM, and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups. In vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 were determined with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These three reconstructive materials were implanted into 8 mm diameter calvarial bone defect in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after implantation for micro-CT, histologic, and histomorphometric analyses. The findings obtained were used to calculate new bone volumes (mm3) and new bone areas (%). Excellent cell bioactivity was observed in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups, and new bone volume and area were significantly higher in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP group than in the other groups (). Within the limitations of this study, bdECM printed PCL/β-TCP scaffolds can reproduce microenvironment for cells and promote adhering and proliferating the cells onto scaffolds. Furthermore, in the rat calvarial defect model, the scaffold which printed rhBMP-2 loaded bdECM stably carries rhBMP-2 and enhances bone regeneration confirming the possibility of bdECM as rhBMP-2 carrier.