Table 1: Characteristics and composition of materials used in this study.

MaterialManufacturerComposition

Ribbond THM(Ribbond, Seattle, USA)(i) Polyethylene fibers

Interlig (Resin Impregnated Glass Fiber)(Angelus, Sao Paulo, Brazil)(i) Glass fibers (weight), 60 ± 5% 
(ii) Impregnated resin (weight) 40 ± 5%: Bis-GMA, diurethane, barium glass, silicon dioxide, catalysts.

Estelite Bulk Fill Flow(Tokuyama Dental Corporation Tokyo, Japan)Bis-GMA, Bis-MPEPP, TEGDMA 
Supra-Nano Spherical filler (200 nm spherical SiO2-ZrO2) 
Composite filler (including 200 nm spherical SiO2-ZrO2) 
Filler loading: 70 wt% (56 vol%) 
Mean particle size: 0.2 μm

Estelite Sigma Quick(Tokuyama Dental Corporation Tokyo, Japan)Bisphenol A di(2-hydroxy propoxy) dimethacrylate Bis-MPEPP - 10–30% 
camphorquinone < 1%, dibutyl hydroxy toluene < 1%, MEQUINOL < 1%, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate 5–10%, Filler loading: 78 wt% (69 vol%) 
Mean particle size: 0.2 μm

Clearfil SE Bond(Kuraray Dental, Tokyo Japan)(i) 10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP); (ii) 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA); (iii) hydrophilic aliphatic dimethacrylate; (iv) dl-camphorquinone; (v) water Bond  
(i) 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP); (ii) bisphenol A diglycidylmethacrylate (Bis-GMA); (iii) 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA); (iv) hydrophobic aliphatic dimethacrylate; (v) dl-camphorquinone; (vi) initiators; (vii) accelerators; (viii) silanated colloidal silica