Table 1: Current treatment protocols and prophylactic measures used for the prevention and control of canine leishmaniasis.

Commercialized vaccines

Trade name/licensedAntigens/adjuvantsEfficacy in field studies [references]

CaniLeish®/VirbacExcreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum (LiESP)/QA2168.4% [82]
Leish-Tech®/Hertape CalierRecombinant protein A2 of L. donovani/Saponin71.4% [83]
Leishmune®/Zoetis (marketing temporarily suspended)Fucose-Mannose Ligand (FML) of L. donovani/QS2176–80% [84]
LetiFend®/Leti + MSD-Animal HealthRecombinant Protein Q from L. infantum/None [85]

Commercialized topical insecticides

Trade name/licensedPharmaceutical compounds/application Form/durationEfficacy in field studies [references]

Scalibor®/MSD-Animal Health4% deltamethrin/impregnated PVC collar/4–6 months50–86%; 61.8% [86, 87]
Seresto®/Bayer Animal Health10% imidacloprid + 4.5% flumethrin/impregnated PVC collar/8 months88.3% [86]
Advantix®/Bayer Animal Health10% imidacloprid + 50% permethrin/spot-on/3 weeks88.9–90.4% [88]
Exspot®/MSD-Animal Health65% permethrin/spot-on/2-3 weeks84% [89]
Frontect® or Frontline Tri-Act®/Merial6.76% fipronil + 50.48% permethrin/spot-on/3 weeks100% [90]
Effitix® or Fiprotix® or Fipratix®/Virbac6.1% fipronil + 54.5% permethrin/spot-on/4 weeks-
Perfikan®/Clément Thékan6.1% fipronil + 54.5% permethrin/spot-on/4 weeks-
Caniguard Line On®/Beaphar40% permethrin/spot-on/5 weeks-
Vectra 3D®/Ceva4.95% dinotefuran + 36.08% permethrin + 0.44% pyriproxyfen/spot-on/4 weeks-

Drugs and combinations used [43, 91]

Active ingredientTherapeutic protocolsPotential adverse effects

Allopurinol10 mg/kg BID P.O. for at least 6–12 months or lifelongXanthine urolithiasis
Amphotericin B deoxycholate0.5 mg/kg I.V. twice per week for 2 monthsNephrotoxicity
Meglumine antimoniate75–100 mg/kg SID S.C. or 40–75 mg/kg SID S.C. for 4 weeksNephrotoxicity
Miltefosine2 mg/kg SID P.O. for 28 daysDigestive disorders
Allopurinol + meglumine antimoniate10 mg/kg BID P.O. for 12 months; 100 mg/kg SID S.C. for 4 weeksUrolithiasis and nephrotoxicity
Allopurinol + miltefosine10 mg/kg BID P.O. for 12 months; 2 mg/kg SID P.O. for 28 daysUrolithiasis and digestive disorders

effectiveness (prevention of clinical cases of leishmaniasis).