Table 2: Effects of natural compounds used as an alternative therapy for PD.

SourceCompoundAction mechanismRefs

Ginkgo bilobaEGb761Antioxidant, inhibited toxic effect of levodopa, inhibited MAO activity, behavioural deficit, anti-apoptotic, maintain , bcl-2, caspase-3, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress[915]
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgetinROS, maintain [16]
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgolide B and Bilobalide-synuclein, anti-apoptotic[17]
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba extractSOD, GHS, malondialdehyde[18]
GinsengGinsenosides Rb1 and Rg1Antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, bcl-2, Bax, iNOS, caspase-3, SOD, GHS, -synuclein fibrils, TNF-, IFN-, IL-1, IL-6, Wnt-1, -catenin, GSK-3, maintain , cytochrome c release[1928]
GinsengGinsenosides Rd and ReAntioxidant, anti-apoptotic, improved mitochondrial function[29, 30]
FlavonoidBaicaleinlipid peroxidation, serotonin, dopamine levels, oxidative stress, -synuclein aggregation, DJ-1, NF-B, ERK, JNK[3140]
FlavonoidLuteolinInflammation, ROS, oxidative stress[4143]
FlavonoidQuercetinAntioxidant, SOD, GPx, oxidative stress, ATPase, catalase, complex I activity, PKD1, Akt, CREB, BDNF[4447]
FlavonoidKaempferolSOD, GHS, lipid peroxidation,autophagy[48, 49]
FlavonoidRutinoxidative stress, SOD, GPx, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, catalase[50, 51]
FlavonoidIsoquercitrinoxidative stress[52]
FlavonoidApigeninInflammation, ROS[43, 53]
FlavonoidTroxerutinlipid peroxidation, ROS, DNA fragmentation[54]
FlavonoidHesperidinAntioxidant[55, 56]
Valeriana officinalisExtract of valerianNormalised SOD and catalase mRNAs[57]
Valeriana wallichiiValeriana wallichiiROS, Inflammation, lipid peroxidation[58]
Passiflora incarnataExtract of passion flowerAntioxidant[59]
Passiflora cincinnataPassiflora cincinnataAntioxidant[60]
Hypericum perforatumExtract of St. John’s wortAntioxidant, anti-apoptotic, GHS, catalase, malondialdehyde, DNA fragmentation[61, 62]