Table 3: Effects of natural compounds used as an alternative therapy for ADHD.


Ginkgo bilobaAlleviates ADHD symptoms in children and has minor side effects[63]
Ginkgo bilobaDouble blind, randomised trial; was less effective than MPH in children with ADHD[64]
Ginkgo bilobaImproved behavioural ratings of ADHD symptoms and the electrical brain activity in children[65]
Ginkgo bilobaRandomised, placebo-controlled trial; the response rate was higher[66]
GinsengOpen trial, improved the inattention and hyperactive/impulsive score in children with ADHD[67]
GinsengObservational clinical study, improved inattentiveness in children with ADHD[68]
GinsengDouble-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial; inattention and hyperactivity scores in children with ADHD[69]
Ginsenoside Rg3 and Ginkgo bilobaROS, BDNF levels, p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter[70]
Flavonoidhyperactivity, improved attention and visual-motor coordination and concentration of children with ADHD[71]
FlavonoidRandomised, double-blind and placebo controlled study; normalised total antioxidant status, oxidative damage to DNA and improved attention in children with ADHD[72]
FlavonoidRandomised, double-blind controlled design; hyperactivity, normalised catecholamine concentrations and oxidative stress in children with ADHD[73]
Flavonoiddopaminergic neurotransmission, improved synaptosomal ATPase, regulated motor ability, learning and memory, hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity in the SHR model[7476]
Valeriana officinalisdouble-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study; improved ADHD symptoms[77]
Passiflora incarnataRandomised study, alleviated ADHD symptoms and has tolerable side effect[78]
Randomised controlled trial; did not improve symptoms in children with ADHD[79]
A preliminary study; improved some symptoms in ADHD patients[80]