Table 3: Mean value and effect size calculations on gait and gait related function outcomes.

OutcomesGroupsDifference within groupsCohen’s d
PretrainingPosttrainingFollow-upPost minus preFollow-up minus preExp-ConPre-postAfter follow-upBefore follow-up
ExpConExpConExpConExpConExpConPrePostFollow-upExpConExpConExpCon

Hesse et al., 2012 [15]
FAC1.5
(0.5)
1.4
(0.5)
N/AN/AN/AN/A2.4
(1.2
1.2
(1.5
3.0
(0.8
1.7
(1.8
0.2N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Gait velocity0.27
(0.12)
0.25
(0.08)
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.31
(0.17
0.16
(0.20
0.39
(0.22
0.25
(0.32
0.19N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
RMI3.9
(1.1)
3.7
(1.1)
N/AN/AN/AN/A3.8
(2.2
2.1
(1.8
5.8
(3.2
3.7
(3.4
0.18N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Morone et al., 2012 [16]
FAC (LM)0.1
(0.3)
0.0
(0.0)
4.0
(0.9
2.1
(1.2)
4.7
(0.5
3.1
(1.3)
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A1.791.625.81N/A0.960.8011.16N/A
RMI (LM)1.6
(0.8)
1.3
(0.9)
9.4
(2.7
4.9
(2.0)
11.8
(3.5
7.0
(3.6)
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.351.891.353.922.320.770.724.022.17
BI (LM)14.2
(11.8)
7.9
(8.9)
69.6
(15.1
52.1
(14.1)
76.9
(11.5
64.7
(14.0)
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.601.190.954.083.740.540.905.384.84
FAC (HM)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.8
(1.1)
3.8
(1.1)
4.3
(0.9)
4.3
(0.9)
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A00N/AN/A0.500.50N/AN/A
RMI (HM)1.8
(1.4)
2.2
(1.9)
7.4
(4.1)
10.1
(4.0)
10.4
(3.6)
10.6
(3.9)
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.230.660.051.832.520.780.133.152.74
BI (HM)20.0
(17.2)
24.6
(15.3)
64.2
(21.2)
74.2
(20.3)
74.3
(18.7)
77.6
(20.4)
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.280.480.162.292.760.510.173.022.94
Chang et al., 2012 [3]
FAC0.5
(0.5)
0.4
(0.5)
1.3
(0.7)
1.4
(0.8)
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A0.20.13N/A0.321.50N/AN/AN/AN/A
Dragin et al., 2014 [4]
Gait speed0.38
(0.09)
0.37
(0.10)
0.54
(0.13
0.44
(0.09)
0.59
(0.11
0.45
(0.10)
0.16
(0.1
0.07
(0.1)
0.21
(0.1
0.08
(0.1)
0.100.891.331.430.740.420.112.090.80
BBS38.4
(9.2)
36.4
(12.0)
44.8
(7.9
40.5
(10.1)
46.7
(8.1
43.9
(9.7
6.4
(3.1)
4.18
(3.34)
8.4
(2.2
7.55
(4.76
0.180.470.310.750.370.240.340.960.69
BI78.6
(10.9)
75.4
(14.6)
87.3
(7.5)
85.9
(8.6)
90.9
(6.6)
91.4
(6.4)
8.6
(6.4)
10.45
(7.57)
12.3
(6.8)
15.91
(12.81)
0.240.170.070.930.880.510.731.371.42
Van Nunen et al., 2015 [17]
Walking speed0.20
(0.16)
0.17
(0.17)
0.31
(0.27
0.21
(0.21
0.39
(0.30
0.26
(0.21
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.180.410.500.500.210.280.240.790.47
FAC1.25
(0.58)
0.29
(0.99)
2.00
(0.88
2.00
(0.13
2.60
(0.84
2.27
(1.42
N/AN/AN/AN/A1.1800.281.012.420.700.271.871.62
BBS14.4
(9.5)
15.0
(9.6)
17.4
(14.7
17.9
(10.2
21.7
(12.2
20.4
(12.0
N/AN/AN/AN/A0.060.030.100.240.290.320.220.670.50
RMI3.8
(2.0)
3.8
(2.0)
5.8
(2.3
5.6
(2.4
6.5
(2.2
6.1
(2.5
N/AN/AN/AN/A00.080.160.930.810.310.201.281.02
TUG454147423237N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Ochi et al., 2015 [18]
FAC1
(1-2)
2
(1-2)
3
(3-4
3
(3-3
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Walking speedN/AN/A0.26
(0.18–0.70)
0.17
(0.15–0.24)
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
FIM7
(6–10)
7
(7–9)
13
(13–21
13
(12–17
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Taveggia et al., 2016 [19]
6 MWT124.8
(117.6)
171.4
(130.0)
191.6
(174.8)
272.8
(155.6)
184.9
(139.8)
295.6
(183.9
66.8
(30.3)
101.4
(40.6)
59.6
(27.5)
124.2
(36.9
0.370.490.670.450.710.040.130.470.78
TWT0.27
(0.25)
0.46
(0.26)
0.56
(0.44
0.66
(0.19)
0.53
(0.37
0.72
(0.38)
0.28
(0.08
0.21
(0.1)
0.25
(0.07
0.26
(0.09)
0.740.290.500.810.880.070.200.820.80
Tinetti gait3.3
(2.9)
5.2
(1.9)
5.4
(2.7)
8.6
(3.8)
5.8
(2.9)
8.6
(1.9)
2.1
(0.6
3.4
(0.8
2.4
(0.4
3.4
(0.6
0.770.971.140.751.130.140.000.861.79
FIM75.6
(22.8)
90.8
(15.3)
89.4
(24.3)
100.2
(11.0)
100.1
(21.8)
100.6
(9.9)
13.8
(3.3
9.4
(4.6)
24.5
(4.4
12.8
(6.2)
0.780.570.020.590.710.460.041.100.76

Exp: experimental group. Con: control group. FAC: functional ambulation classification. RMI: Rivermead mobility index. HM: high Motricity. LM: low Motricity. BI: Barthel index. BBS: Berg balance scale. TWT: 10 m walking test. TUG: timed up and go. 6 MWT: 6 m walk test. FIM: functional independence measure. N/A: not available. Significantly different within groups, ; significantly different between groups, ; large effect size.