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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 4280312, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4280312
Research Article

Osteoporosis and Jaw Abnormalities in Panoramic Radiography of Chronic Liver Failure Patients

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4Student Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Maryam Zahed; moc.oohay@dhzmayram and Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar; ri.ca.smus@hgaha

Received 27 April 2018; Revised 22 June 2018; Accepted 24 July 2018; Published 26 August 2018

Academic Editor: Joseph F. Buell

Copyright © 2018 Janan Ghapanchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) are faced with many complications, because this organ is involved in various metabolic activities. Hepatic osteodystrophy is one of the major health issues encountered by this group of patients. The current study evaluated osteoporosis and bone changes in oral panoramic radiographies of cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods. In this study, 138 panoramic views of CLF patients, candidates for liver transplant (65 females, 73 males, aged 19-68 years) referred to Shiraz University Dental Clinic (Shiraz, Iran) for pretransplant oral examination, were evaluated. Also 138 healthy individuals (69 females, 69 males, aged 18-70 years) referred to the same clinic were examined. Abnormalities such as osteoporosis, pathologic radiolucencies, pathologic calcifications, tonsilloliths, condylar degeneration, and other findings in the alveolar bones were recorded. Results. Osteoporosis was a common finding in CLF patients (p<0.001), and the probability of detecting low bone density in the panoramic view was 20.37 times higher among patients than healthy subjects. The probability of detecting pathologic jaw radiolucencies was 8.92 times higher in the case group than in the controls (p<0.001). Other bone abnormalities such as condylar degeneration and idiopathic osteosclerosis were also more prevalent in CLF patients compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001). Conclusion. Cirrhotic patients are prone to osteoporosis of the alveolar bones. Also, pathologic jaw radiolucencies as a result of oral infections are more prevalent in this group of patients. Routine oral panoramic views are acceptable and cost-effective radiographies for use in detecting such abnormalities in the alveolar bones as well as overall dental health. These findings also support the importance of dental health examinations prior to liver transplantation to reduce the risk of organ rejection.