Curcumin as a Promising Antibacterial Agent: Effects on Metabolism and Biofilm Formation in S. mutans
CLSM imaging of S. mutans biofilm grown in 1% BHIS. After 24 h of growth, the biofilm was treated with 1% BHIS (control), 500 μM curcumin, or 0.12% chlorhexidine for 5 min (a) and 24 h (b). Each micrograph represents 4 optical sections: green representing live bacteria, red representing dead bacteria, combined green and red from two channel images, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the control biofilm without any treatment, the 500 μM curcumin-treated biofilm, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine-treated biofilm. The total bacteria biomass and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) of lived bacteria are quantified in (c) and (d). The data represent the mean ± SD. The asterisks () indicate significant differences (, , ).