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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 4863454, 7 pages
Research Article

The Reliability and Validity of a Modified Squat Test to Predict Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Healthy Older Men

1Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
2Physical Educational Office, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Yangming Branch, Taipei, Taiwan
4Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
5Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
6Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
7Department of Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Miaoju Hsu; wt.ude.umk@ushjm

Received 31 August 2017; Accepted 16 November 2017; Published 2 January 2018

Academic Editor: Leonardo dos Santos

Copyright © 2018 Chiu-Ping Yeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Shortcomings are noted in currently available cardiopulmonary field tests for the older adult and thus relevant research is still ongoing. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a modified squat test and to establish a regression model for predicting aerobic fitness in the older adult. Methods. Twenty-five healthy men aged 60 to 75 years completed this study. Each subject performed two modified squat tests with a prototype testing equipment and a maximal exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption. Recovery heart rates (HR) (0~30, 60~90, and 120~150 seconds) were measured following the modified squat tests. The fitness indexes included the sum of recovery HR, recovery HR index, age-adjusted recovery HR index, and immediate HR. Results. The results revealed that the age-adjusted recovery HR index fitness had the highest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.9 and Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.71, which suggested the modified squat test can reasonably assess cardiopulmonary fitness for the older adult. The regression equation for estimating aerobic power was = 16.781 + 16.732 × (age-adjusted recovery HR index) + 0.02467 × (physical activity level). Conclusion. The modified squat test is a valid and reliable field test and thus can be an option to assess the cardiopulmonary fitness level of healthy older men in clinics or communities.