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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 5936180, 6 pages
Research Article

Risk Factors for Failure of Direct Current Cardioversion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Atrial Fibrillation

1Cardiovascular Trials Unit, The Old St Mary’s Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester, UK
2Cardiovascular Research Group, Core Technology Facility, University of Manchester, 3rd Floor, 46 Grafton Street, Manchester, UK
3Bolton Diabetes and Endocrine Unit, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UK
4Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Duhok University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
5Department of Medicine, Wirral University Teaching Hospital, Wirral, UK
6Department of Endocrinology, Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, UK
7Department of Medicine, Shar Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
8Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK
9Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar, Division of Medicine, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence should be addressed to Handrean Soran

Received 22 June 2017; Revised 3 December 2017; Accepted 8 February 2018; Published 12 March 2018

Academic Editor: Kamel Mohammedi

Copyright © 2018 Handrean Soran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is higher among patients with T2DM. Direct current cardioversion (DCCV) is an important management option in persistent AF. We sought to determine independent risk factors for immediate and short-term outcomes of DCCV for treatment of AF in patients with T2DM. Methods. Retrospective outcome analysis of DCCV for persistent AF in 102 T2DM patients compared with 102 controls. Results. DCCV was successful in 68 (66.6%) people with T2DM compared to 86 (84.3%) in the control group (). After initial successful cardioversion, only 38 (37.2%) T2DM patients remained in sinus rhythm compared to 63 (61.8%) in the control group () at a median follow-up of 74.5 days (IQR 69.4–77.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of T2DM (), digoxin use (), statin use (), left-atrial size (), and LV ejection fraction () were independent risk factors for immediate DCCV failure. T2DM () was an independent risk factor for AF relapse. Among patients with T2DM, previous DCCV (), digoxin use (), left-atrial size (), LV ejection fraction (), and HbA1c () predicted immediate failure of DCCV whilst digoxin use () was an independent risk factor for relapse of AF. Conclusion. T2DM, higher HbA1c, digoxin treatment, and structural and functional cardiac abnormalities are independent risk factors for immediate DCCV failure and AF relapse.