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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 8289253, 16 pages
Review Article

Pharmacological Management of Diabetic Macular Edema in Real-Life Observational Studies

1Department of Ophthalmology, Croix-Rousse University Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, University of Lyon I, 69004 Lyon, France
2CNRS UMR 5510 Mateis, 69621 Villeurbanne, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Laurent Kodjikian; rf.oodanaw@tnerual.naikijdok

Received 30 March 2018; Revised 15 June 2018; Accepted 5 August 2018; Published 28 August 2018

Academic Editor: Valentin Huerva

Copyright © 2018 Laurent Kodjikian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives of the Study. Summary of observational studies concerning the pharmacological management of diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. A literature review was conducted using the PubMed database on 1 February 2018 to identify studies evaluating the efficacy of anti-VEGF and dexamethasone (DEX) implants for DME. Studies with more than 10 patients and follow-up of more than 6 months were selected. Analyses were carried out on the overall population and on subgroups defined according to baseline visual acuity (BVA) and the patients’ naïve or non-naïve status. Results. Thirty-two studies evaluating the efficacy of anti-VEGF and 31 studies evaluating the efficacy of DEX-implants were retained, concerning 6,842 and 1,703 eyes, respectively. A mean gain of +4.7 letters for a mean of 5.8 injections (mean follow-up: 15.6 months) and +9.6 letters for a mean of 1.6 injections (10.3 months) was found in the anti-VEGF and DEX-implant studies, respectively. Final VA appears to be similar for both treatment (62 letters for anti-VEGF, 61.2 letters for DEX-implant), and BVA appears lower for DEX-implant, which may partially explain the greater visual gain. The DEX-implant studies show greater gains in VA compared to the anti-VEGF studies, especially for higher BVA. Indeed, mean gains for the subgroups of patients with BVA<50 letters, 50<BVA<60 letters, and BVA>60 letters are +4.3, +5.8, and +3.1 letters, respectively, in the anti-VEGF studies and +10.5, +9.3, and +8.8 letters, respectively, in the DEX-implant studies. Regarding the patient’s initial status, only naïve status appears to confer the best functional response in DEX-implant studies. Conclusion. Observational studies investigating DEX-implant report clinically similar final VA when compared to anti-VEGF, but superior visual gains in real-life practice. This latter difference could be due to the better BVA, but also to the fact that less injections were administered in the anti-VEGF observational studies than in the interventional studies.