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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 9623579, 9 pages
Research Article

The Plantaris Muscle Tendon and Its Relationship with the Achilles Tendinopathy

1Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
2Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
3Department of Angiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Ł. Olewnik; lp.zdol.demu@kinwelo.zsakul

Received 19 February 2018; Accepted 30 April 2018; Published 31 May 2018

Academic Editor: Nihal Apaydin

Copyright © 2018 Ł. Olewnik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. Although the plantaris muscle (PM) is vestigial in humans, it has a significant clinical role in procedures such as grafting. However, recent reports suggest its potential involvement in the tendinopathy of the midportion of the Achilles tendon. The aim of the study is therefore to evaluate morphological variation of the PM with regard to its potential conflict with the Achilles tendon. Material and Methods. Classical anatomical dissection was performed on 130 lower limbs (71 right, 59 left) fixed in 10% formalin solution. The morphology of the PM was assessed regarding the relationship between the course of the plantaris tendon and the calcaneal tendon. Results. The PM was present in 89.2% of cases. The findings indicate the presence of a new type of PM tendon insertion in which the tendon is inserted into the tarsal canal flexor retinaculum, potentially affecting the tendinopathy of the tibialis posterior muscle. In 26 cases (22.4%), insertion blended with the Achilles tendon (Type II), which may increase the risk of Achilles tendinopathy. Conclusion. The anatomical variation of PM tendon morphology may create a potential conflict with the Achilles tendon and the tibialis posterior tendon, thus increasing the possibility of tendinopathy.