Figure 2: MSCs in IBD and CAC mainly aim to suppress overactive immune responses by cell-to-cell contact and paracrine action. A: MSCs can integrate into intestinal mucosa by the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells, then format vascular endothelial cells and matrix cells to restore intestinal wall parclose. B: The immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on IBD is mainly owing to paracrine function which secreted different cytokines to inhibit inflammation. MSCs also can secrete exosomes to the intestinal mucosa to inhibit inflammation.