Schematic diagram representing the basic steps of NGS and mass-spectrometry. NGS (left) can be used for both genomic DNA and RNA-sequencing. Mass-spectrometry based proteomics (right) are typically used to identify and quantify large amount of proteins from cells, tissues, and body fluids. 1Primary cells and tissues from patients can be mixed with labelled proteins, typically extracted from cell lines cultured in presence of stable isotopically labelled amino acids. This method is called Super-SILAC. Proteomics can also be done without any labelling steps. This method is known as label free-quantification (LFQ). 2Peptides obtained after tryptic digestion can also be labelled chemically by methods known as “Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)” or “Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)”.