BioMed Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Review on Role of Microbiome in Obesity and Antiobesity Properties of Probiotic Supplements

Table 1

Influence of probiotic supplementation on obese people.

Study subjectsInterventionDose Duration of the studyClinical outcomesConclusionsRef.

People with obesity and hypertensionHypocaloric diet
(1500 kcal/d), and cheese containing Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA
Calorie restricted diet and 50 g of cheese per day3 weeks↓BMI
BMI associated with lactobacilli load in the intestine.
↓ Morning systolic BP.
Calorie restriction and probiotic supplementation significantly reduced the BMI, and systolic BP in people with obesity and hypertension.[24]

Overweight or obese peopleL. gasseri BNR176 capsules per day
(1010 CFU per capsule)
12 weeks↓ Weight, waist and hip circumferences.Reduced the body weight, waist and hip circumferences compared to baseline.[25]

Obese peopleL. gasseri BNR171010 CFU per day12 weeks↓ Visceral adipose tissue, waist circumferences.The probiotic supplementation reduced the visceral fat accumulation and waist circumference.[26]

Adults with abdominal adiposityL. gasseri SBT2055 mediated fermented milk (FM)200 g of FM per day (106 / 107 / 108CFU per g of FM)12 weeks↓ Abdominal visceral fat
↓ Body weight, waist and hip circumferences
Low concentration of SBT2055 supplementation reduced the obesity associated health problems, but continuous consumption is needed to maintain the effect.[27, 28]

Healthy Overweight volunteersVSL#3 and /or omega 3 fatty acid (OFA)1 capsule per day (112.5 × 109 CFU per capsule);
1 OFA capsule per day (180 mg EPA, and 120 mg DHA)
6 weeksVSL#3 alone or in combination of OFA supplementation:
↓ Total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, and hsCRP
↑ HDL level, insulin sensitivity.
Altered the gut microbiota positively. OFA supplementation did not affect the microbiota.
The combination of VSL#3 and OFA showed more pronounced effects.[29]

Obese pregnant womenL. salivarius UCC1181 capsule per day (109 CFU per capsule)4 weeks↓BMI
No changes in glycemia, and pregnancy outcomes
UCC118 supplementation had not significantly affected the metabolic profile, fasting glucose level, and pregnancy outcomes.[30]

Obese pregnant womenVivomixx®A mixture of probiotic strains (4.5 × 1010 CFU per day)Depends↓ weight gain and pregnancy consequencesAltered the microbiota in a positive way and reduced the complications of pregnancy and weight gain.[31]

Obese postmenopausal womenL. paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage (FM)9.4 × 1010 CFU per day or 10 g of FM6 weeksFM intervention altered the microbiota and improves insulin sensitivity. But F19 supplementation had no effect on the metabolic profile in the subjectsFM improved the health status of obese postmenopausal women[32]

Obese postmenopausal womenEcologic® (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, L. salivarius W24, L. acidophilus W37, B. lactis W51, B. lactis W52, L. casei W56, L. brevis W63, Lactococcus lactis W19, and L. lactis W58)High dose (1× 1010 CFU per day); Low dose (2.5 × 109 CFU per day)12 weeksLevel of LPS, fat mass, glucose, HOMA-IR index, LDL, subcutaneous fat, total cholesterol, TG, insulin, uric acid, waist circumferenceBoth high and low dose of Ecologic® supplementation improved the cardiometabolic parameters and intestinal permeability in obese postmenopausal women.[33]

Overweight adultsB. breve B-35 × 1010 CFU per day12 weeks↓ Fat mass
Improved the liver function, and inflammation system.
B-3 supplementation improved the metabolic profile of overweight adults[34]

Healthy non-obese peopleVSL#3 and high fat diet4.5 × 1010 CFU per day4 weeksReduced the body mass and fat mass compared to placebo controlVSL#3 supplementation prevents the high-fat diet and induced fat and body mass increase in healthy non-obese adults[35]

Overweight and obese peopleB. animalis ssp. lactis 420 (B420) with/ without Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU)1010 CFU per day; 12 g of LU per day6 months↓ Fat mass, waist circumference.
↓ Blood hsCRP, and zonulin level
B420 supplementation reduced the fat mass in obese people with or without LU.[36]

Obese and overweight womenProbiotic yogurtA mixture of probiotic strains (107 CFU per day)12 weeksNo significant change in body mass, HDL, TG.
↓ Total cholesterol, LDL, insulin resistance.
Improved the insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles in the obese and overweight women[37]

Obese children and adultsProbiotic mixL. rhamnosus DSMZ 21690 (2 × 109 CFU), L. acidophilus ATCCB3208 (3 × 109 CFU), B. bifidum ATCC SD6576 (2 × 109 CFU), B. lactis DSMZ 32269 (6 × 109 CFU) per day12 weeks↓ AsAT, AAT, cholesterol, LDL, TG, waist circumferenceThe probiotic supplementation improved the condition of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese people[38]

Obese or overweight womenProbiotic mix (Danisco®) and controlled dietB. lactis. B. bifidum, L. casei, L. acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis, 2 × 1010 CFU per day8 weeks↓ Polyunsaturated fatty acids level conicity index, waist-height ratio, waist circumference.
↑ glutathione peroxidase activity
Dietary restriction along with probiotic intervention effectively reduced the obesity associated consequences and improved the antioxidant status of the subjects[39]

Overweight peopleL. plantarum KY1032, and L. curvatus HY76012 g of probiotic powder (Each 2.5 ×109 CFU per day)12 weeks↑ Dodecenoylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine, tetradecenoylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine level.
↓body weight, body fat mass
Probiotic supplementation mediated weight loss is associated with increased medium-chain acylcarnitines in the overweight individuals.[40]

Overweight peopleProbiotic preparation (B. bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis, L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. lactis)3 ×1010 CFU per day4 weeksNo changes in waist circumference, body weight, glucose level. ↓ Energy intakeProbiotic supplementation reduced the energy intake compared to baseline. It can be used as an adjuvant for the weight loss program.[41]

Obese peopleSynbiotic formula (L. rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724, inulin, oligofructose)3.24 ×108 CFU per day; 90 g inulin, 210 g oligofructose per day12 weeks↑ Weight loss in women.
↑ Satiety efficiency↓ Disinhibition and hunger scores, food craving.
The intervention of synbiotic preparation influenced the appetite control and associated behavior in obese people during weight loss program[42]

Preobese-obese, normal weight obese, and normal weight lean womenPsychobiotics (B. bifidum SGB02, B. animalis subsp. lactis SGB06, Streptococcus thermophilus SGSt01, S. thermophiles, L. plantarum SGL07, L. delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, L. reuteri SGL01, L. acidophilus SGL11, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SGLc01)Each 1.5 ×1010 CFU per day3 weeks↓ BMI, Fat mass
↓ Psychopathological scores
↓ Bacterial overgrowth syndrome
↓ BUT_GSI scale
↑ Free fat mass
Improved the meteorism and defecation frequency
Psychobiotics supplementation improved the body composition, reduced the dysbiosis, and reduced the psychopathological scores in preobese-obese and normal weight obese people.[43]

Obese patients
L. casei (3.5 × 109 CFU), L. rhamnosus (7.5 × 108 CFU), L. bulgaricus (108 CFU), L. acidophilus (109 CFU), B. breve (1010 CFU), B. longum (3.5 × 109 CFU), and S. thermophilus (108 CFU), and fructo-oligosaccharide (38.5 mg) in one sachet
One sachet per day4 weeks before surgery and 12 weeks after surgeryImproved the vitamin D status, inflammatory markers, lipid profile, and glycemic indices.
No changes in folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels
Familact® supplementation improved inflammatory markers and promoted weight loss in OAGB-MGB patients.[44]

Healthy pre-obese adultsB. breve B-32 ×1010 CFU per day12 weeks↓ Body fat mass, TG
B-3 supplementation reduced the body fat effectively in pre-obese subjects.[45]

Obese peopleCalorie restricted diet and fortified yogurt (S. thermophiles, L. bulgaricus and B. lactis Bb-12, inulin, whey protein, vitamin D3, calcium)500 g of fortified yogurt per day10 weeks↓ Body fat mass
↓ Waist circumference, body fat percentage, TG level, HOMA-IR value.
↑ HDL, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, QUICKI.
Improved the body composition, and metabolic profile in obese people[46]

Abdominally obese peopleB. animalis subsp. lactis CECT 81451010 CFU per day12 weeks↓ BMI, visceral fat
↓ Conicity index
↓ Waist circumference
↓ Waist circumference/ height ratio
Akkermansia spp. in the gut microbiota
CECT 8145 supplementation effectively reduced the obesity associated consequences in abdominally obese people[47]

Insulin-resistant obese childrenB. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 CFU per day13 weeks↓ BMI, hsCRP, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
↑ Omentin-1, and HDL.
Alistipes spp.
CECT 7765 supplementation improved the lipid profile and inflammatory markers in obese children[48]

Intervention starts from 14-20 weeks of the gestation and continued until delivery of the baby; ↓: Reduced; BMI: Body mass index; BP: Blood pressure; VSL#3: A probiotic formulation containing three strains of Bifidobacterium and four strains of Lactobacillus; EPA: Eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA: Docosahexaenoic acid; TG: Triglyceride; LDL: Low-density lipids; VLDL: Very-low-density lipids; HDL: High-density lipids; hsCRP: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Vivomixx®: A probiotic formulation containing eight bacterial strains; AAT: Alanine aminotransferase; AsAT: Aspartate aminotransferase; BUT_GSI scale: Body uneasiness test and global severity index; OAGB-MGB: Anastomosis Gastric Bypass-Mini Gastric Bypass; QUICKI: Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index; HOMA-IR: Homoeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.