Keap1 Cystenine 151 as a Potential Target for Artemisitene-Induced Nrf2 Activation
ATT activates Nrf2 signaling pathway by modifying Keap1 at C151. (a) COS-1 cells were cotransfected with ARE-luciferase, Renilla luciferase, WT or mutant Keap1, and Nrf2 expression plasmids and treated with 7 μM ATT after 48 hours. Relative firefly luciferase activity in cell expressing WT and mutant Keap1 was calculated and normalized against that of Renilla. Data are expressed as mean ± SD of three experiments. and compared to WT Keap1 and DMSO, respectively; and compared to Keap1-C151S and DMSO, respectively. (b) Immunoblots showing Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in the above cells and the quantification of Nrf2 (c) and HO-1 (d). All values are represented as mean ± SD of three experiments. and compared to untreated and tBHQ, respectively; and compared to WT and ATT, respectively.