Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates Kidney Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury via Reducing Inflammation, Tubular Injury, and Myofibroblast Formation
(a) Representative pictures of α-SMA immunostaining for myofibroblast marker. Positive staining is shown in interstitial areas (white arrow). (b) Representative pictures of SOD-1 immunostaining. Positive staining is shown in epithelial cells in SO, meanwhile reduction in the IR group. The IR + CGA3 group demonstrated positive staining in epithelial cells. (c) Quantification of the myofibroblast number showed reduction of the numbers in CGA-treated groups, especially the IR + CGA3 group. (d) Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of SOD-1. The IR + CGA3 group demonstrated significantly higher SOD-1 mRNA expression compared to the IR group. (e) Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of inflammatory markers (TLR-4 and MCP-1). The IR + CGA3 group demonstrated significantly lower MCP-1 and TLR-4 mRNA expressions with the IR group. vs. SO group; vs. SO group; vs. SO group. vs. IR group; vs. IR group; vs. IR group.