BioMed Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Loratadine, an H1 Antihistamine, Inhibits Melanogenesis in Human Melanocytes

Table 1

Summary of the H1 antihistamines screened for antimelanogenesis. Among them, clemisole, ebastine, loratadine, and terfenadine significantly decreased the melanin content (text with ).

NameTrade name Therapeutic chemical classSystematic (IUPAC) nameMolecular weight

First generation antihistamines

Brompheniramine maleateBromfed, Dimetapp, Bromfenex, Dimetane, LodraneAlkylamine3-(4-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-amine435.3213
Chlorpheniramine maleateChlor-trimetonAlkylamine3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-amine390.8703
Clemastine fumarateTavistAminoalkyl ethers(2R)-2-2-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylethoxy]ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidine459.9746
Clemizole hydrochloride--1-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)benzimidazole362.3053
Diphenhydramine hydrochlorideBenadryl, unisom, sominex, zzzquilAminoalkyl ethers2-(diphenylmethoxy)-N,N-dimethylethanamine291.824
Doxylamine succinateunisomAminoalkyl ethers(RS)-N,N-dimethyl-2-(1-phenyl-1-pyridin-2-yl-ethoxy)-ethanamine388.4677
Methapyrilene hydrochloride-Substituted ethylenediaminesN,N-dimethyl-N′-pyridin-2-yl-N′-(2-thienylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine297.8526
Orphenadrine hydrochlorideNorflex, Banflex, Orphenate, Flexoject, FlexonAminoalkyl ethersN,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methylphenyl)- phenyl-methoxy]-ethanamine305.8511
Pheniramine maleateAvilSubstituted alkylaminesN,N-dimethyl-3-phenyl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-amine356.4253
Promethazine hydrochloridePhenerganPhenothiazine derivatives(RS)-N,N-dimethyl-1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-amine320.8873
Pyrilamine maleatePyrlexSubstituted ethylene diaminesN-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N′,N′-dimethyl-N-pyridin-2-ylethane-1,2-diamine401.4664
Triprolidine hydrochlorideActidil, Myidil, Actifedother2-[(E)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-3-pyrrolidin-1-yl- prop-1-enyl]pyridine314.8616

Second generation antihistamines

EbastineEvastin, kestine, ebastel, aleva, ebatrolOther4-(4-benzhydryloxy-1-piperidyl)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)butan-1-one469.6731
Cetirizine dihydrochlorideZirtec, Zyrtec, reactinePiperazine derivatives(±)-[-[-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1- piperazinyl]ethoxy]acetic acid461.8199
Epinastine hydrochlorideAlesion, Elestat, Purivist, Relestatother(RS)-3-amino-9,13b-dihydro-1H-dibenz(c,f)imidazo(1,5-a)azepine285.779
Ketotifen fumarateZaditorother4-(1-Methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-4,9-dihydro-10H-benzo[,5]cyclohepta[,2-b]thiophen-10-one425.5075
LoratadineClaritin, ClaratyneotherEthyl 4-(8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-11H-benzo[,6]cyclohepta[,2-b]pyridin-11-ylidene)-1-piperidinecarboxylate382.8938
TerfenadineSeldane, Triludan, Teldaneother(RS)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-4-[hydroxy(diphenyl)methyl]piperidin-1-yl-butan-1-ol471.6891

Third generation antihistamine

Fexofenadine hydrochlorideAllegra, Fexidine, Telfast, Fastofen, Tilfur, Vifas, Telfexo, Allerfexo, Flexofenother(±)-4-[-Hydroxy-4-[-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-butyl]-α, α-dimethyl benzeneacetic acid501.6719

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