(a)
(b)

Figure 3: The effects of ES on Smads signaling and fibroblasts transformation. (a) The effect of smad2/3 translocation after ES and BAPTA-AM treatment. (b) Col III, α-SMA, and Smads signaling related protein expression after ES and BAPTA-AM treatment. P<0.001, NS: no significance compared with control. Every experiment was repeated for 3 times. Control: control group; ES: electrical stimulation group. BAPTA-AM: BAPTA-AM treatment group. B+ES: BAPTA-AM and electrical stimulation treatment group.