Table 3: Main characteristics of studies on the association between vitamin D and NAFLD, ordered by year of publication.

Study
(authors-year)
CountryRace/
ethnicity
Study typeHealth status
(Case)
settingMethod of NAFLD ascertainmentBMI in NAFLD
(mean±SD)
BMI in controls
(mean±SD)

Sezer et al. (2016) [17]TurkeyTurkishCross-sectionalHepatosteatosisoutpatientultrasound28.7±4.327.3±3.3
Mohamed et al. (2016) [26]EgyptEgyptianCross-sectionalNAFLDoutpatientultrasoundNRNR
Malespin et al. (2015) [27]USAChineseCross-sectionalSuspected NAFLDNRElevated ALTNRNR
Chang et al. (2015) [23]KoreaKoreanCase controlSS and NASHoutpatientUPLC-
MS/MS
25.89±4.1323.7±2.63
Yildiz et al. (2014) [24]TurkeyTurkishCase controlHepatosteatosisPediatrics clinicultrasound30.9±3.929.3±4.4
Black et al. (2014) [28]AustraliaCaucasian
Non-Caucasian
Cross-sectionalNAFLDGeneral populationultrasound27.0±7.422.0±3.0
Nobili et al. (2014) [29]ItalyCaucasianCross-sectionalNAFLDLiver biopsyultrasound31.3±4.37NR
Pirgon et al. (2013) [25]TurkeyTurkishCase controlNAFLDInpatientultrasound28.7±4.728.4±3.6

SS: simple steatosis; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; BMI was measured in kg/m2; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; UPLC-MS/MS: ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.