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BioMed Research International
Volume 2019, Article ID 9515079, 8 pages
Research Article

Acute Effect of Toe Cap Choice on Toe Deviation Angle and Perceived Pain in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

1Posturology Center, Salerno 84127, Italy
2College of Arts and Sciences, Sport Science Program, University of Qatar, Doha 2713, Qatar
3Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, School of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Verona, Verona 37131, Italy
4Department of Psychology, University eCampus, Novedrate 22060, Italy
5Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split 21000, Croatia
6Sport Performance Lab, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split 21000, Croatia
7Tunisian Research Laboratory Sports Performance Optimization, National Center of Medicine and Science in Sport, Tunis 1000, Tunisia

Correspondence should be addressed to Luca P. Ardigò; ti.rvinu@ogidra.acul

Received 7 January 2019; Revised 16 February 2019; Accepted 19 March 2019; Published 10 April 2019

Academic Editor: Ayhan Cömert

Copyright © 2019 Annamaria Salzano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several classical dance complex movements, such as pointe, require body weight to be supported properly to avoid risk of foot injury. Regarding the choice of toe cap for pointe shoes, it is unclear which type can better alleviate pain symptoms and toe deviation angle in dancers. The aim of the current crossover study was to investigate the acute effect of using different types of toe caps among well-trained professional dancers on pain perception and toe deviation angle. Ten young female professional dancers volunteered to participate in the study. Each participant was tested during two separate sessions with an interval of 72 h in between. Participants were tested in the two sessions with a standard commercial or a customized prototype toe cap, always with pointe shoes, and in randomized order. An anteroposterior X-ray examination was performed separately for each participant and a visual analogue scale for pain perception was administered following each situation (with a standard commercial or a customized prototype toe cap). Significant amelioration was obtained when a customized toe cap prototype was used both for toe deviation angle and for visual analogue scale. Use of a customized toe cap prototype compared to a standard one may acutely reduce both toe deviation angle and pain in elite female professional dancers.