Figure 3: Light microscopic images show the distribution of GFAP immunolabeling across the brain of Intranasal LPS mice and controls. (a)–(f) The images revealed that the GFAP was expressed higher in Intranasal LPS mice than in control mice. And the GFAP expression decreased along the olfactory bulb to the hippocampus. Scale bar= 1000 μm in (a) and (d), 200 μm in (b) and (e), and 50 μm in (c) and (f). (g) Western blot images from Intranasal LPS mice and controls. (h) Quantitative summaries of the protein levels relative to GAPDH as an internal control, expressed as a percentage of GAPDH optical density (o.d.) for the groups (n = 3/group). The ~ 50 kDa GFAP band is not readily seen in control mice compared with Intranasal LPS mice. Statistical results (Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test with Dunn’s multiple post hoc comparison) are shown in the bar graphs, with “” indicating significant intergroup differences.