Aseptic Technology for Cryoprotectant-Free Vitrification of Human Spermatozoa by Direct Dropping into Clean Liquid Air: Apoptosis, Necrosis, Motility, and Viability
Progressive motility of vitrified spermatozoa. F, fresh spermatozoa (control group); LN, group of spermatozoa vitrified in liquid nitrogen; LA, group of spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Significant difference versus control, .