BioMed Research International / 2020 / Article / Fig 4

Research Article

Aseptic Technology for Cryoprotectant-Free Vitrification of Human Spermatozoa by Direct Dropping into Clean Liquid Air: Apoptosis, Necrosis, Motility, and Viability

Figure 4

Viability of vitrified spermatozoa. F, fresh spermatozoa (control group); LN, group of spermatozoa vitrified in liquid nitrogen; LA, group of spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air. Micrographs of fresh and treated spermatozoa (right figure). (A (a, b, c)) fresh spermatozoa (control group), (B (d, e, f)) spermatozoa vitrified in liquid nitrogen, and (C (g, h, i)) spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air. (D) A total of 200 spermatozoa were assessed, and the results are shown on the right. Significant difference versus control, . Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, Scale bars: 50 μm.
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