Kupffer Cell-Derived TNF-α Triggers the Apoptosis of Hepatic Stellate Cells through TNF-R1/Caspase 8 due to ER Stress
ER stress promotes the polarization of KCs toward the M1 phenotype via the IRE1/TRAF2/NF-κB signaling pathway. (a) The M1 phenotype of KCs was detected by dual immunofluorescence staining. CD16 (green), CD68 (red), and DAPI (blue). (b) The proportion of KCs with an M1 phenotype was detected by CD16/Arg1 staining and assessed by flow cytometry. (c) The levels of IRE1α, TRAF2, P-P65, CD16, iNOS, and CD86 were detected by Western blot. (d) Quantitative analysis of Western blots. (A) Control group, (B) model group, (C) ER stress group, and (D) depletion group. ER stress group vs. model group. #ER stress group vs. depletion group, .
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