Lack of PPARβ/δ-Inactivated SGK-1 Is Implicated in Liver Carcinogenesis
Effect of PPARβ/δ overexpression on cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. HepG2 cells were stably transfected with pEGFP-PPARβ/δ or pEGFP vector. (a) PPARβ/δ expression was analyzed in five different cell lines using western blot. (b) The relative mRNA expression levels for PPARβ/δ were evaluated by qPCR. The PPARβ/δ mRNA expression level was significantly higher in the PPARβ/δ-overexpressed cells than in the control cells (). (c) Western blotting analysis to evaluate the PPARβ/δ expression levels in HepG2 cells transfected with pEGFP-PPARβ/δ or the control vector. (d) Cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 assay at the indicated time points. (e) The effect of PPARβ/δ on cancer cell growth was confirmed by a colony formation assay. Colonies were stained with 0.1% crystal violet and counted. (f) Representative histogram plots of the flow cytometry analysis. The numbers of cells in the G0/G1 and S+G2 phases were determined by flow cytometry. (g) The effect of PPARβ/δ on apoptosis was determined by FACS using an annexin V apoptosis assay. Annexin V-positive apoptotic cells were significantly increased in pEGFP-PPARβ/δ-transfected cells compared with pEGFP vector-transfected cells. Values are the from three replicate experiments. ,.
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