BioMed Research International

BioMed Research International / 2021 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2021 |Article ID 5562461 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5562461

Qi Chen, Xiaoge Zhao, Tingya Lu, Yao Yang, Yi Hong, Minyi Tian, Ying Zhou, "Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils from Flower, Leaf, and Stem of Rhynchanthus beesianus", BioMed Research International, vol. 2021, Article ID 5562461, 11 pages, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5562461

Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils from Flower, Leaf, and Stem of Rhynchanthus beesianus

Academic Editor: Yan-Ming Xu
Received18 Jan 2021
Accepted23 Apr 2021
Published29 Apr 2021

Abstract

Rhynchanthus beesianus is a medicinal, ornamental, and edible plant, and its essential oil has been used as an aromatic stomachic in China. In this study, the chemical constituents, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties of flower essential oil (F-EO), leaf essential oil (L-EO), and stem essential oil (S-EO) of R. beesianus were investigated for the first time. According to the GC-FID/MS assay, the F-EO was mainly composed of bornyl formate (21.7%), 1,8-cineole (21.6%), borneol (9.7%), methyleugenol (7.7%), β-myrcene (5.4%), limonene (4.7%), camphene (4.5%), linalool (3.4%), and α-pinene (3.1%). The predominant components of L-EO were bornyl formate (33.9%), borneol (13.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.1%), methyleugenol (8.0%), camphene (7.8%), bornyl acetate (6.2%), and α-pinene (4.3%). The main components of S-EO were borneol (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (21.3%), methyleugenol (14.6%), bornyl formate (11.6%), and bornyl acetate (3.9%). For the bioactivities, the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO exhibited significant antibacterial property against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli with the inhibition zones (7.28–9.69 mm), MIC (3.13–12.50 mg/mL), and MBC (6.25–12.50 mg/mL). Besides, the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) (93.15–94.72%) and cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) (23.99–77.81%) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (17.69–24.93%) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells at the dose of 128 μg/mL in the absence of cytotoxicity. Hence, the essential oils of R. beesianus flower, leaf, and stem could be used as natural antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents with a high application potential in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.

1. Introduction

Essential oils are a mixture of natural volatile compounds from different parts of plants and have been widely used in cosmetic, perfume, agriculture, food, and medicine fields [1, 2]. Essential oils have been used as complementary and alternative therapies to treat cancer, high blood pressure, pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and so on [3]. The side effects of synthetic drugs, the high resistance rate of pathogen strains, and the limitations of existing antibiotics/drugs have motivated people to seek and use alternative or complementary therapies, including the use of essential oils [3, 4]. The family Zingiberaceae consists of approximately 52 genera and 1600 species, many of which are rich in essential oils [5, 6]. According to the previous studies, the essential oils of Zingiberaceae plants have a great variety of pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antiulcer, antiallergic, analgesic, antimutagenic, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties [711].

Rhynchanthus J. D. Hooker is a small genus of Zingiberaceae, with about four species distributed in Indonesia, Myanmar, and Southern China [12, 13]. Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith is a perennial herb, cultivated as a medicinal, edible, and ornamental plant in Myanmar and Southern China [13, 14]. R. beesianus is a wild edible spice, and its tender leaf and rhizome are used as vegetables in Yunnan Province, China. R. beesianus flower with brilliant color and peculiar brush shape is used as a fresh cut flower. Its rhizome has been used as an aromatic stomachic in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomachache and indigestion [1517]. Additionally, the essential oils from R. beesianus have been used as an aromatic stomachic in China [17]. According to the previous study, the essential oil of R. beesianus rhizome was mainly composed of 1,8-cineole (47.6%), borneol (15.0%), methyleugenol (11.2%), and bornyl formate (7.6%) and was found to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, α-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase activity inhibitory properties [18]. R. beesianus mainly relies on the vegetative propagation of rhizome for population expansion. Only harvesting the aerial parts (flower, leaf, and stem) of R. beesianus can reduce its damage, which is conducive to its sustainable use. However, there are no reports on the chemical components and antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils from R. beesianus flower, leaf, and stem.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Plant Material

The flower, leaf, and stem of R. beesianus were collected in July 2019 from Guangxi Province of China. Plant materials were identified by Prof. Guoxiong Hu of Guizhou University. Voucher specimens were kept at the National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for the Exploition of Homology Resources of Southwest Medicine and Food, Guizhou University (Voucher No: RB-20190712).

2.2. Essential Oils’ Extraction

The fresh, finely chopped R. beesianus flower, leaf, and stem (1.0 kg) were separately extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. After 4 h, the flower, leaf, and stem essential oils were separately obtained and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Then, all essential oils were kept at 4°C in the amber bottle for further tests.

2.3. Chromatographic Analysis

The essential oils were analyzed by an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an HP-5MS capillary column (, 0.25 μm film thickness) and a flame ionization detector (FID) (Agilent Technologies Inc., CA, USA). The split ratio was 1 : 20 (injection volume: 1 μL) with helium as carrier gas (1 mL/min). The GC oven temperature was as follows: held at 70°C (2 min), 2°C/min to 180°C (55 min), 10°C/min to 310°C (13 min), and kept at 310°C (4 min). The GC-MS analysis was carried out using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent 5975C mass selective detector. The Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to an Agilent 5975C mass selective detector (MS) was used to identify the chemical composition of the essential oils. The parameters of GC and capillary column were the same as in GC-FID. The MS was operated in the electron ionization mode at 70 eV and the mass range ( 29 to 500). The ion source temperature and interface temperature were 230°C and 280°C, respectively. The relative percentage of chemical constituents was determined by the peak area normalization method. A series of n-alkanes (C8–C30) were injected to calculate the retention index. The components of the essential oils were identified by comparison of their mass spectrum and calculated retention index and with those listed in Wiley 275 and NIST 17 databases.

2.4. Antimicrobial Activity
2.4.1. Bacterial Strains

The antibacterial activity was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Proteus vulgaris ACCC 11002, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, and Escherichia coli CICC 10389.

2.4.2. Agar Well Diffusion Assay

The inhibition zone diameters were measured according to the agar well diffusion method with marginal modification [19]. The essential oils and streptomycin (positive control) were separately dissolved in ethyl acetate (100 mg/mL) and distilled water solution (100 μg/mL). 100 μL of bacterial suspensions (106 CFU/mL) was evenly inoculated on the Mueller-Hinton agar plate. Then, filter paper discs of 6 mm diameter containing sample solution (20 μL) were added. After 24 h incubation at 37°C, the inhibition zone diameters were measured.

2.4.3. Determination of MIC and MBC

The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were assayed by our previously published microplate dilution method [20]. Briefly, 100 μL of bacterial suspension and twofold serially diluted sample solution (100 μL) were added to each well at a final density of 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Subsequently, resazurin solutions (20 μL, 0.1 mg/mL) were added to each well. After 2 h incubation at 37°C in the dark, the MIC values were determined as the minimum sample concentration without color change. For the determination of the MBC values, 10 μL of samples from the wells without color change was subcultured on Mueller-Hinton agar medium. After 24 h incubation at 37°C, the MBC values were determined as the minimum sample concentration without bacterial growth.

2.5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity
2.5.1. Cytotoxic Assay

The cytotoxicity was evaluated on murine fibroblast cells (L929) and murine macrophages (RAW264.7) by the MTT assay with slight modification [21]. The L929 and RAW264.7 cells were separately maintained in RPMI 1640 medium and DMEM medium (10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 100 μg/mL streptomycin, and 100 U/mL penicillin) and incubated in a humidified incubator at 37°C with 5% CO2 atmosphere. 100 μL of cell suspensions was added to each well at a density of cells per well. After 24 h incubation, twofold serially diluted essential oil solutions (100 μL) were added to each well and incubated for 24 h. Subsequently, 10 μL of MTT solution (5 mg/mL in PBS) was added and incubated for 4 h. After discarding the supernate, DMSO (150 μL) was added to each well to dissolve the formazan crystal. The absorbance was recorded at 490 nm using a Varioskan Lux Multimode microplate reader (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA).

2.5.2. Morphology Assay and Measurement of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α

100 μL of RAW264.7 cell suspensions was added to each well at a density of cells per well and incubated for 24 h. After discarding the medium, twofold serially diluted essential oil solutions (100 μL) were added and incubated for 2 h. Subsequently, lipopolysaccharide solutions (LPS, 100 μL) were added to each well at a final concentration of 1 μg/mL and incubated for 24 h. Morphological changes were recorded using a Leica DMi8 inverted microscope (Leica Microsystems, Germany). Then, the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The accumulation of NO in the culture supernatant was determined by a colorimetric NO detection kit following the manufacturer’s instructions (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China). Dexamethasone (DXM, 20 μg/mL) was used as a positive reference. The secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α was assayed by ELISA kits in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions (MultiSciences Biotech Co., Ltd., Hangzhou, China).

2.6. Statistical Analysis

All experiments were performed independently at least three times, and the results were expressed as the . SPSS software (version 19.0) was used for statistical analysis. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Fisher’s LSD post hoc tests. Differences were considered significant at the level.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Chemical Composition

The hydrodistillation of fresh flower, leaf, and stem of R. beesianus separately yielded essential oils at 0.21% (), 0.47% (), and 0.94% () on a fresh weight basis. The GC-FID/MS analysis showed the identification of forty-six, forty-four, and sixty-three compounds accounting for 98.6%, 98.7%, and 96.0% of the total oil content of flower, leaf, and stem, respectively (Table 1). R. beesianus F-EO was mainly composed of bornyl formate (21.7%), 1,8-cineole (21.6%), borneol (9.7%), methyleugenol (7.7%), β-myrcene (5.4%), limonene (4.7%), camphene (4.5%), linalool (3.4%), and α-pinene (3.1%) (Figure 1). The predominant components of L-EO were bornyl formate (33.9%), borneol (13.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.1%), methyleugenol (8.0%), camphene (7.8%), bornyl acetate (6.2%), and α-pinene (4.3%) (Figure 2). The S-EO was mainly composed of borneol (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (21.3%), methyleugenol (14.6%), bornyl formate (11.6%), and bornyl acetate (3.9%) (Figure 3). In our previous study, the yield of R. beesianus rhizome oil was 0.22% (), and its predominance components were 1,8-cineole (47.6%), borneol (15.0%), methyleugenol (11.2%), and bornyl formate (7.6%) [18]. R. beesianus stem had the highest essential oil yield, as compared with the flower, leaf, and rhizome. Hence, the observed difference in the yield and composition of the essential oils could be attributed to the part of the plant used.


CompoundsaRIbRIc% areaIdentificationd
F-EOL-EOS-EO

Octane8008000.1tre0.1MS, RI
cis-3-Hexen-1-ol8578500.5MS, RI
Ethylbenzene855863treMS, RI
m-Xylene8668710.1MS, RI
o-Xylene8879000.1MS, RI
Tricyclene9259260.10.2treMS, RI
α-Thujene9299280.1treMS, RI
α-Pinene9379373.14.30.6MS, RI
Camphene9529524.57.80.8MS, RI
Sabinene9749760.40.20.2MS, RI
β-Pinene9799822.00.90.4MS, RI
β-Myrcene9919915.40.70.4MS, RI
α-Phellandrene100510080.20.1treMS, RI
α-Terpinene101710200.1treMS, RI
p-Cymene102310270.10.10.1MS, RI
Limonene103010314.72.81.7MS, RI
1,8-Cineole1032103521.612.121.3MS, RI
cis-Ocimene103810370.3MS, RI
α-Ocimene104710472.0tre0.1MS, RI
γ-Terpinene106010610.10.10.1MS, RI
cis-4-Thujanol107010690.1tre0.2MS, RI
cis-Linalool oxide107410740.0MS, RI
Terpinolene108810920.1tretreMS, RI
Linalool109911013.41.02.4MS, RI
trans-Verbenol114411480.1MS, RI
Camphor114511490.30.60.1MS, RI
Camphene hydrate114811530.1MS, RI
Borneol116711719.713.222.5MS, RI
Terpinen-4-ol117711810.30.30.3MS, RI
α-Terpineol119011941.50.91.9MS, RI
Bornyl formate1226123421.733.911.6MS, RI
Isobornyl formate12321240tre0.1treMS, RI
Carvone12421248treMS, RI
Isopentyl hexanoate125212500.10.0MS, RI
Bornyl acetate128412902.36.23.9MS, RI
γ-Pyronene133813420.10.1MS, RI
Daucene13811385treMS, RI
β-Elemen139413950.1tre0.1MS, RI
Methyleugenol140214077.78.014.6MS, RI
α-Gurjunene14091417tre0.1MS, RI
Caryophyllene141914271.50.30.8MS, RI
Aromandendrene144014560.1MS, RI
cis-β-Farnesene144514590.1MS, RI
Humulene145414610.20.1MS, RI
epi-β-Caryophyllene146614690.10.10.1MS, RI
α-Curcumene148314870.30.20.6MS, RI
Methylisoeugenol149214991.11.12.0MS, RI
Bicyclogermacrene149915040.61.00.7MS, RI
β-Bisabolene150915130.10.10.2MS, RI
Sesquicineole15161519treMS, RI
δ-Cadinene152415290.20.20.5MS, RI
2-(4-Ethenyl-4-methyl-3-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexyl)propan-2-ol154915550.1MS, RI
Nerolidol156415670.1tre0.1MS, RI
Palustrol15681577treMS, RI
Germacren D-4-ol157415830.2MS, RI
Spathulenol157615860.30.91.1MS, RI
Caryophyllene oxide158115920.70.30.4MS, RI
Ledol160716120.1MS, RI
Isospathulenol163816460.2MS, RI
β-Eudesmol164916600.1MS, RI
α-Cadinol165316630.10.1MS, RI
Ambrial180918150.70.10.5MS, RI
Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone18441850treMS, RI
Isophytol194819530.1MS, RI
Pimaradiene199619900.20.11.0MS, RI
(E)-15,16-Dinorlabda-8 (17),11-dien-13-one199420091.6MS, RI
Geranyl linallol203420390.2MS, RI
Abietatriene205420860.1MS, RI
Phytol211421220.5MS, RI
Coronarin E213621590.3MS, RI
Tricosane230022990.4MS, RI
Pentacosane250024980.1MS, RI
Total98.698.796.0

aCompounds were listed in the order of their elution on the HP-5MS column. bRetention index (RI) on the HP-5MS column, using a homologous series of n-alkanes (C8–C30) as references. cRI in Wiley 275 and NIST 17 mass spectral libraries. dIdentification: MS by comparison with Wiley 275 and NIST 17 mass spectrum libraries; RI by comparison of retention index with those reported in NIST 17 and Wiley 275 libraries. -: not detected. etr: trace ().
3.2. Antimicrobial Activity

The antibacterial properties of essential oils were qualitatively determined by the inhibition zone diameters (Table 2) and quantitatively evaluated by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (Table 3). Streptomycin was used as a positive reference. The R. beesianus F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO showed broad-spectrum antibacterial effect with DIZ values between 7.28 and 9.69 mm against Bacillus subtilis (MIC: 12.50 mg/mL, MBC: 12.50 mg/mL), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC: 3.13–6.25 mg/mL, MBC: 6.25 mg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 6.25–12.50 mg/mL, MBC: 12.50 mg/mL), Proteus vulgaris (MIC: 3.13 mg/mL, MBC: 12.50 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC: 6.25 mg/mL, MBC: 12.50 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (MIC: 3.13–6.25 mg/mL, MBC: 6.25–12.50 mg/mL). In previous studies, the antibacterial activity of predominance components, such as borneol, 1,8-cineole, methyleugenol, β-myrcene, limonene, camphene, and α-pinene, has been demonstrated [2227]. Hence, these major constituents could explain the significant antibacterial properties of R. beesianus F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO. These results suggest that R. beesianus F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO can be used as a natural source of antibacterial agents for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


MicroorganismsThe inhibition zone diameters (mm)
F-EOL-EOS-EOStreptomycin

Gram positive
Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P
Gram negative
Proteus vulgaris ACCC 11002
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027
Escherichia coli CICC 10389

aDiameter of the inhibition zone includes diameter of the disk (6 mm). Essential oil solutions were dissolved with ethyl acetate (tested volume: 20 μL, 100 mg/mL); streptomycin distilled water solution (tested volume: 20 μL, 100 μg/mL) was used as a positive control.

MicroorganismF-EO (mg/mL)L-EO (mg/mL)S-EO (mg/mL)Streptomycin (μg/mL)
MICMBCMICMBCMICMBCMICMBC

Gram positive
B. subtilis12.5012.5012.5012.5012.5012.500.390.78
E. faecalis6.256.253.136.253.136.2512.5025.00
S. aureus12.5012.5012.5012.506.2512.500.781.56
Gram negative
P. vulgaris3.1312.503.1312.503.1312.500.391.56
P. aeruginosa6.2512.506.2512.56.2512.503.1312.50
E. coli6.2512.503.136.253.1312.500.191.56

a MIC: minimal inhibitory concentration; MBC: minimal bactericidal concentration; streptomycin as a positive control.
3.3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity

The inhibitory effects of F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO on the proinflammatory mediator (NO) and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were investigated in the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. According to the MTT assay, all essential oils revealed no significant cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 and L929 cells at a dose of 16-128 μg/mL in comparison with the untreated control cells () (Figure 4). Hence, the dose of 16-128 μg/mL was used in subsequent experiments. As shown in Figure 5(a), LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages became irregular in shape and increased in size compared to those in the control group. Compared with the LPS-induced group, RAW264.7 cells in the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO at doses of 128 μg/mL treated group exhibited relatively smooth surfaces. The accumulation of NO in the culture supernatant was detected by a colorimetric NO detection kit using dexamethasone (DXM, 20 μg/mL) as a positive reference. All essential oils dose-dependently inhibited NO accumulation (Figure 5(b) and Table 4). In particular, compared with the LPS group (μM), the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO (128 μg/mL) significantly decreased NO production by , , and μM, respectively. The inhibitory ratios of F-EO (), L-EO (), and S-EO () at doses of 128 μg/mL were comparable to DXM (, μM). The secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α was assayed by ELISA kits. All essential oils potently suppressed the secretion of IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages, and the inhibitory ratios of S-EO at 64 μg/mL () and 128 μg/mL () and L-EO at 128 μg/mL () were exceeded that of DXM ( at 20 μg/mL) (Figure 5(c) and Table 4). Besides, compared with the LPS group ( pg/mL), the secretion of TNF-α was significantly decreased by F-EO ( pg/mL), L-EO ( pg/mL), and S-EO ( pg/mL) at doses of 128 μg/mL (Figure 5(d)). As shown in Table 4, the inhibitory ratio of TNF-α of S-EO () was equivalent to that of DXM (). The proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and mediator (NO) play key roles in inflammation disorders, and reducing their release is a promising strategy to treat inflammation-related diseases [28]. In our previous study, R. beesianus rhizome essential oil (128 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the production of NO (), IL-6 (), and TNF-α () in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells [18]. Compared with the essential oils of R. beesianus flower, leaf, and rhizome, the essential oil of stem showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. The main components in the essential oils, such as 1,8-cineole, methyleugenol, borneol, α-pinene, linalool, limonene, β-myrcene, and bornyl acetate, have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory activity [2935]. Hence, the anti-inflammatory activity of F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO may be due to these predominant constituents. These results suggest that R. beesianus F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO can provide natural anti-inflammatory agents for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


TreatmentDose (μg/mL)Inhibition (%)
NOIL-6TNF-α

DXM20aaa

F-EO16bbb,c
32ccb,c,d
64dcb,d
128a,eaf

L-EO16fdc
32dcb,c,d
64gcd
128a,eef

S-EO16hcb,c,d
32iab,c,d
64jed
128efa

Experiments were performed independently at least three times, and the results were expressed as (SD) values. a-jDifferent letters in the same column indicate a significant difference ().

4. Conclusion

To our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of essential oils from R. beesianus flower, leaf, and stem. Forty-six, forty-four, and sixty-three compounds were identified in the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO by using GC-FID/MS, respectively. The F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO exhibited significant antibacterial property against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Besides, the F-EO, L-EO, and S-EO significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediator NO and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. In particular, the essential oil of the stem showed the highest yield and anti-inflammatory activity. Hence, the essential oils of R. beesianus flower, leaf, and stem could be regarded as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory natural products with a high application potential in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the financial support grant from National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1708100) and Guizhou Science and Technology Program (Qian Ke He Zhi Cheng (2020) 1Y133 and Qian Ke He Ping Tai Ren Cai (2018) 5781).

References

  1. F. Bakkali, S. Averbeck, D. Averbeck, and M. Idaomar, “Biological effects of essential oils - a review,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 446–475, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. S. Burt, “Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 223–253, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. G. Buchbauer and R. Bohusch, “Biological activities of essential oils: an update,” in Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications, K. H. C. Baser and G. Buchbauer, Eds., pp. 281–321, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  4. J. S. Raut and S. M. Karuppayil, “A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 62, pp. 250–264, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. “The Plant List, Version 1.1,” December 2020, http://www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/A/Zingiberaceae/. View at: Google Scholar
  6. I. B. Jantan, M. S. M. Yassin, C. B. Chin, L. L. Chen, and N. L. Sim, “Antifungal activity of the essential oils of nine Zingiberaceae species,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 392–397, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. J. W. Tan, D. A. Israf, and C. L. Tham, “Major bioactive compounds in essential oils extracted from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith: a mini-review on the anti-allergic and immunomodulatory properties,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 9, p. 652, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. M. Mahboubi, “Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition and bioactivity,” Clinical Phytoscience, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 6, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. S. Balaji and B. Chempakam, “Anti-bacterial effect of essential oils extracted from selected spices of Zingiberaceae,” The Natural Products Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. U. Phukerd and M. Soonwera, “Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of essential oils from Zingiberaceae plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes,” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 761–771, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  11. S. Tewtrakul and S. Subhadhirasakul, “Anti-allergic activity of some selected plants in the Zingiberaceae family,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 535–538, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. “The Plant List, Version 1.1,” December 2020, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Rhynchanthus. View at: Google Scholar
  13. J. Y. Gao, Z. H. Yang, P. Y. Ren, and Q. J. Li, “Reproductive ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: a ginger with bird pollination syndrome,” Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1294–1299, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. D. L. Wu and K. Larsen, “Rhynchanthus J. D. Hooker,” in Flora of China, Z. Y. Wu and P. H. Raven, Eds., pp. 346-347, Science Press, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing, China and St. Louis, USA, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  15. Chinese Materia Medica Editorial Committee, Zhong hua ben cao [Chinese materia medica], Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China, 1999.
  16. D. S. He, Yu long ben cao [Yulong Materia Medica], Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, China, 2016.
  17. CHMC-Chinese Herbal Medicine Company, The Chinese Traditional Medicine Resource Records, Science Press, Beijing, China, 1994.
  18. X. G. Zhao, Q. Chen, T. Y. Lu et al., “Chemical composition, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory activities of essential oil from Rhynchanthus beesianus rhizome,” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 167, 2021. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. H. Y. Zhang, Y. Gao, and P. X. Lai, “Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow,” Molecules, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 381, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. M. Y. Tian, X. H. Wu, T. Y. Lu et al., “Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and enzyme inhibitory activities of Hedychium flavum rhizome,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 11, article 572659, 2020. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 55–63, 1983. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. W. A. Bernardes, R. Lucarini, M. G. Tozatti et al., “Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Rosmarinus offi cinalis and its major components against oral pathogens,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, vol. 65, no. 9-10, pp. 588–593, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. S. V. Vuuren and A. M. Viljoen, “Antimicrobial activity of limonene enantiomers and 1,8-cineole alone and in combination,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 540–544, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. M. H. Alma, S. Nitz, H. Kollmannsberger, M. Digrak, F. T. Efe, and N. Yilmaz, “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish pistachio (Pistacia veraL.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 3911–3914, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. R. K. Joshi, “Chemical composition, in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major constituents,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 457–462, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. S. N. Park, Y. K. Lim, M. O. Freire, E. Cho, D. Jin, and J. K. Kook, “Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria,” Anaerobe, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 369–372, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. S. Santoyo, S. Cavero, L. Jaime, E. Ibanez, F. J. Senorans, and G. Reglero, “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil obtained via supercritical fluid extraction,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 790–795, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. B. Ayissi Owona, N. F. Njayou, S. Laufer, P. F. Moundipa, and H. J. Schluesener, “A fraction of stem bark extract of _Entada africana_ suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 162–168, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. M. C. Souza, A. C. Siani, M. F. S. Ramos, O. Menezes-de-Lima Jr., and M. G. M. O. Henriques, “Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species,” Pharmazie, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 582–586, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  30. U. R. Juergens, “Anti-inflammatory properties of the monoterpene 1.8-cineole: current evidence for co-medication in inflammatory airway diseases,” Drug Research, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 638–646, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. J. R. G. S. Almeida, G. R. Souza, J. C. Silva et al., “Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene alcohol, reduces nociceptive behavior and inflammatory response in mice,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 808460, 5 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. Y. K. Choi, G. S. Cho, S. Hwang et al., “Methyleugenol reduces cerebral ischemic injury by suppression of oxidative injury and inflammation,” Free Radical Research, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 925–935, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. D. S. Kim, H. J. Lee, Y. D. Jeon et al., “Alpha-pinene exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 731–742, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. M. Huo, X. Cui, J. Xue et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. e47–e54, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. H. Yang, R. Zhao, H. Chen, P. Jia, L. Bao, and H. Tang, “Bornyl acetate has an anti-inflammatory effect in human chondrocytes via induction of IL-11,” IUBMB Life, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 854–859, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2021 Qi Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.
 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views279
Downloads727
Citations

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.