Patterns and Direct/Indirect Signaling Pathways in Cardiovascular System in the Condition of Transient Increase of NORead the full article
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Effect Study of Continuous Monoculture on the Quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge Roots
High-efficiency monoculture severely inhibits the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge and decreases the yield and quality of crude drug, thus resulting in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted field soils with 1, 2, 3, and 4 years of monoculture history to investigate the influence of continuous monocropping soil on the property of medicinal materials by pot experiments. Results showed that the commodity appearance and active ingredient contents of Salvia miltiorrhiza were significantly affected by soil with different continuous monocropping years. Along the time series of plantation soil, the diameter of main roots, weight of fresh roots, and total contents of hydrophilic and lipophilic components demonstrated a decline tendency. With the method of PCA, the property of medicinal materials affected by continuous monocropping soil was evaluated by the following formula: . Eventually, crude drug properties ranked according to comprehensive scores were as follows: . For the medicinal plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, continuous monocropping soil had significant effects on the property of Salvia miltiorrhiza and should be ameliorated by some measures. The results provide support for the optimal continuous cropping year selection and continuous cropping obstacle abatement of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: Perspectives on Tumor Subtype and Treatment
Objective. To evaluate ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) characteristics and the effect of different treatment strategies. Patients and Methods. Using data with known hormone receptor (HoR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status obtained by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2010-2014, the study was conducted to investigate tumor subtype-specific differences in various characteristics, overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM). Results. A total of 3415 patients with DCIS were eligible. Compared with HoR+/HER- subgroup, patients with triple-negative (TN) and HoR-/HER+ were commonly higher in grade, larger in size, and tended to receive mastectomy (). The multivariate analysis revealed that patients with TN were more likely to have a poorer OS and show a higher breast cancer-specific mortality compared with the HoR+/HER- subgroup (). Multivariate analysis on the history of local treatment and surgery showed patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy (R) and BCS plus axillary lymph node dissection was likely to improve OS without affecting breast cancer-specific mortality (). Conclusion. The results demonstrate that DCIS associated with TN subtype portends poor prognosis. Meanwhile, BCS plus R was a preferable option and resulted in survival rates better than those achieved with mastectomy, and SLNB should be considered as an appropriate assessment of axillary staging in patients with DCIS.
Mechanism of YuPingFeng in the Treatment of COPD Based on Network Pharmacology
YuPingFeng (YPF) granules are a classic herbal formula extensively used in clinical practice in China for the treatment of COPD. However, the pathological mechanisms of YPF in COPD remain undefined. In the present research, a network pharmacology-based strategy was implemented to elucidate the underlying multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway modes of action of YPF against COPD. First, we identified putative YPF targets based on TCMSP databases and constructed a network containing interactions between putative YPF targets and known therapeutic targets of COPD. Next, two topological parameters, “degree” and “closeness,” were calculated to identify target genes in the network. The major hubs were imported to the MetaCore database for pathway enrichment analysis. In total, 23 YPF active ingredients and 83 target genes associated with COPD were identified. Through protein interaction network analysis, 26 genes were identified as major hubs due to their topological importance. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis results revealed YPF to be mainly associated with the response to glucocorticoids and steroid hormones, with apoptotic and HIF-1 signalling pathways being dominant and correlative pathways. The promising utility of YPF in the treatment of COPD has been demonstrated by a network pharmacology approach.
Prenatal Diagnosis and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Copy Number Variations on 4p15.2p16.3, Xp22.31, and 12p11.1q11 in a Fetus with Ultrasound Anomalies: A Case Report and Literature Review
Chromosomal rearrangements, such as duplications/deletions, can lead to a variety of genetic disorders. Herein, we reported a prenatal case with right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery, consisting of a complex chromosomal copy number variations. Routine cytogenetic analysis described the chromosomal karyotype as 46,XY, add (2)(q37) for the fetus. However, the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified a 22.4 Mb duplication in chromosome 4p16.3p15.2, a 3.96 Mb microduplication in 12p11.1q11, and a 1.68 Mb microdeletion in Xp22.31. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a chromosome 4 painting probe was found to hybridize to the terminal of chromosome 2q on the fetus, thus confirming that the extra genetic materials of chromosome 2 was actually trisomy 4p detected through CMA. Meanwhile, the parental karyotypes were normal, which proved that the add (2) was de novo for fetus. The duplication of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region (WHSCR) and X-linked recessive ichthyosis associated with Xp22.31 deletion separately were considered potentially pathogenic causes although other abnormalities involving these syndromes were not observed. For prenatal cases, the combined utilization of ultrasonography, traditional cytogenetic, and molecular diagnosis technology will enhance better diagnostic benefits, offer more detailed genetic counselling, and assess the prognosis of the fetuses.
The Efficacy of Contrast Transthoracic Echocardiography and Contrast Transcranial Doppler for the Detection of Patent Foramen Ovale Related to Cryptogenic Stroke
Background. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to the pathophysiology of cryptogenic stroke. Contrast transesophageal echocardiography (cTEE) is the current gold standard for PFO diagnosis, but it has the disadvantage of being semi-invasive and does not exempt from risks. As a diagnostic test, the efficacy of contrast transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) and contrast transcranial Doppler (cTCD) is controversial. This study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of cTTE and cTCD versus cTEE in PFO detection, exploring a more cost-effective and reliable method for the diagnosis of PFO related to cryptogenic stroke. Methods. From August 2019 to January 2020, a total of 213 patients with suspected PFO were included in our study. All patients underwent cTEE, cTCD, and cTTE examinations. cTTE3 was named for using a cutoff of 3 beats to detect PFO during cTTE, and cTTE5 represented a cutoff of 5 beats. A cutoff of cTCD grade III was named cTCD III. A cutoff of grade IV was named cTCD IV. cTTE3+cTCD IV was used for the combination of a cutoff of 3 beats during cTTE with grade IV of cTCD. cTTE5+cTCD III combined a cutoff of 5 beats during cTTE with cTCD grade III. Taking cTEE as the gold standard, we compared the sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (-LR), and misdiagnosis rate for PFO detection among the above methods. Results. A total of 161 of 213 (76%) patients had PFO confirmed by cTEE. With the spontaneous Valsalva maneuver, the sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (-LR), and misdiagnosis rate of cTTE3 in PFO diagnosis were 60%, 90%, 44%, and 10%, respectively, and those for cTTE5 were 76%, 78%, 31% and 22%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (-LR), and misdiagnosis rate of cTCD III were 80%, 71%, 29%, and 29%, respectively, while those for cTCD IV were 55%, 90%, 49%, and 10%, respectively. When cTTE and cTCD were combined to diagnose PFO, the specificity and misdiagnosis rate were significantly improved, especially cTTE3+cTCD IV, with 100% specificity and a misdiagnosis rate of 0. Conclusion. cTTE or cTCD can be used for preliminary PFO related to cryptogenic stroke findings. The combination of the two methods can improve the specificity of PFO diagnosis, especially using the cutoff of cTTE3+cTCD IV.
Licochalcone a Induces ROS-Mediated Apoptosis through TrxR1 Inactivation in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Licochalcone A (LCA) exhibited anticancer activity through modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in some cancer cells and has been evidenced to suppress colorectal cancer (CRC) formation and progression. However, whether LCA mediates the progression of CRC by regulating ROS production remains unclear. To address this, HCT-116 cells were treated with LCA, resulting in G0/G1 phase arrest, apoptosis, and high ROS generation, which were attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS inhibitor. In addition, LCA suppressed the expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in HCT-116 cells, leading to high ROS levels and apoptosis. Moreover, LCA administration combined with TrxR1 inhibition further enhanced the production of ROS and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells compared to LCA administration or TrxR1 inhibition alone. These results demonstrated that LCA might enhance the production of ROS by targeting TrxR1, leading to apoptosis in HCT-116 cells, which provides potential insight for the interventional treatment of CRC.