BioMed Research International https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Dental Age and Tooth Development in Orthodontic Patients with Agenesis of Permanent Teeth Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:24:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8683970/ Objective. To compare the development of permanent teeth in a group of children with the congenitally missing permanent teeth (CMPT) and corresponding nonaffected group. Methods. The formation stages of all developing permanent teeth were determined on 345 panoramic radiographs (OPTs) by the method of Haavikko (1970), and dental age was calculated. The paired samples -test was used to compare the differences between dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) in those with CMPT and those not affected. Spearman test was used to evaluate the correlation between DA-CA and the number of missing teeth. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the development of the teeth adjacent to the place of the agenesis with matched pair in corresponding nonaffected group. Results. Dental age was significantly delayed in CMPT children compared to the nonaffected group (). The mean differences were −0.57 ± 1.20 years and −0.61 ± 1.23 years in males and females, without difference between sexes (). The number of missing teeth affected the delay only in females (). Only mesial teeth in females were significantly delayed in development when compared to the nonaffected group (). Conclusion. Our findings show that the development of the permanent teeth is delayed when compared to the nonaffected group of the same sex and age. Jozo Badrov, Tomislav Lauc, Enita Nakaš, and Ivan Galić Copyright © 2017 Jozo Badrov et al. All rights reserved. Effects of FMO3 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics of Sulindac in Chinese Healthy Male Volunteers Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:46:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4189678/ Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is clinically used for the ailments of various inflammations. This study investigated the allele frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G and evaluated the influences of these two genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and its metabolites in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Eight FMO3 wild-type (FMO3 HHDD) subjects and seven FMO3 homozygotes E158K and E308G mutant (FMO3 hhdd) subjects were recruited from 247 healthy male volunteers genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. The plasma concentrations of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, and sulindac sulfone were determined by UPLC, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two different FMO3 genotypes were compared with each other. The frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G were 20.3% and 20.1%, respectively, which were in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ( = 0.977, = 0.944). The mean values of , , and of sulindac were significantly higher in FMO3 hhdd group than those of FMO3 HHDD group (), while the pharmacokinetic parameters except of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The two FMO3 mutants were in close linkage disequilibrium and might play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of sulindac in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Yong-Jun Tang, Kai Hu, Wei-Hua Huang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Zhi Liu, Yao Chen, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Zhi-Rong Tan, Hong-Hao Zhou, and Chun-Su Yuan Copyright © 2017 Yong-Jun Tang et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:10:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2729487/ Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL) reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT) after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014). Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL), estimated total blood loss (ETBL), and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg). Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level and body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of postoperative BT ( and 0.003, resp.). Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (). Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance ( all). Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg ( and 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL. Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong, Siwadol Wongsak, Noratep Kulachote, Pongsthorn Chanplakorn, Patarawan Woratanarat, and Viroj Kawinwonggowit Copyright © 2017 Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong et al. All rights reserved. Caudal Epidural Block: An Updated Review of Anatomy and Techniques Sun, 26 Feb 2017 06:38:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9217145/ Caudal epidural block is a commonly used technique for surgical anesthesia in children and chronic pain management in adults. It is performed by inserting a needle through the sacral hiatus to gain entrance into the sacral epidural space. Using conventional blind technique, the failure rate of caudal epidural block in adults is high even in experienced hands. This high failure rate could be attributed to anatomic variations that make locating sacral hiatus difficult. With the advent of fluoroscopy and ultrasound in guiding needle placement, the success rate of caudal epidural block has been markedly improved. Although fluoroscopy is still considered the gold standard when performing caudal epidural injection, ultrasonography has been demonstrated to be highly effective in accurately guiding the needle entering the caudal epidural space and produce comparative treatment outcome as fluoroscopy. Except intravascular and intrathecal injection, ultrasonography could be as effective as fluoroscopy in preventing complications during caudal epidural injection. The relevant anatomy and techniques in performing the caudal epidural block will be briefly reviewed in this article. Sheng-Chin Kao and Chia-Shiang Lin Copyright © 2017 Sheng-Chin Kao and Chia-Shiang Lin. All rights reserved. IFN-τ Displays Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Staphylococcus aureus Endometritis via Inhibiting the Activation of the NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Mice Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2350482/ The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of IFN-τ on endometritis using a mouse model of S. aureus-induced endometritis and to elucidate the mechanism of action underlying these effects. In the present study, the effect of IFN-τ on S. aureus growth was monitored by turbidimeter at 600 nm. IFN-τ did not affect S. aureus growth. The histopathological changes indicated that IFN-τ had a protective effect on uterus tissues with S. aureus infection. The ELISA and qPCR results showed the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was decreased with IFN-τ treatment. In contrast, the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. We further studied the signaling pathway associated with these observations, and the qPCR results showed that the expression of TLR2 was repressed by IFN-τ. Furthermore, the western blotting results showed the phosphorylation of IκB, NF-κB p65, and MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK) was inhibited by IFN-τ treatment. The results suggested that IFN-τ may be a potential drug for the treatment of uterine infection due to S. aureus or other infectious inflammatory diseases. Zhenbiao Zhang, Yingfang Guo, Yuzhu Liu, Chengye Li, Mengyao Guo, and Ganzhen Deng Copyright © 2017 Zhenbiao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Melanomas and Dysplastic Nevi Differ in Epidermal CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Count Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6803756/ Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7.00/mm2 for invasive melanomas, 2.94 for in situ melanomas, and 13.35 for dysplastic nevi. The differences between dysplastic nevi and melanoma in situ as well as between dysplastic nevi and invasive melanoma were significant. There was no correlation in number of positively stained cells between epidermis and dermis. We did not observe any intraepidermal DC-LAMP+ cells neither in melanoma in situ nor in invasive melanoma as well as any intraepidermal DC-SIGN+ cells in dysplastic nevi. Conclusion. It was shown that the number of dendritic cells differs between dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, and invasive melanomas. This could eventually suggest their participation in the development of melanoma. Grzegorz Dyduch, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Anna Glajcar, Joanna Szpor, Magdalena Ulatowska-Białas, and Krzysztof Okoń Copyright © 2017 Grzegorz Dyduch et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of CK-18, FGF-21, and Related Biomarker Panel in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:39:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9729107/ Liver biopsy still remains the gold standard for diagnosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but with limitations. There is an urgent need to develop noninvasive tests that accurately distinguish NASH from simple steatosis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum biomarkers including cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), and combined biomarker panel (CBP) in the diagnosis of NAFLD, especially NASH. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity values for chosen serum markers for diagnosing NASH are as follows: CK-18 (M30), 0.75 and 0.77; CK-18 (M65), 0.71 and 0.77; FGF-21, 0.62 and 0.78; and CBP, 0.92 and 0.85. CBP demonstrated better accuracy with higher sensitivity and specificity than those tested individually. Furthermore, the AUROC of CBP was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92–0.96), compared to CK-18 or FGF-21 assay, which showed the most significant ability to distinguish NASH from simple steatosis. The results suggest that increased circulating CK-18 and FGF-21 are associated with NASH and may be used for initial assessment, but not enough. Importantly, CBP is potentially used as accurate diagnostic tools for NASH. Further prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Lei He, Linfeng Deng, Quan Zhang, Jianli Guo, Jinan Zhou, Wenjian Song, and Fahu Yuan Copyright © 2017 Lei He et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Long-Term Chaetomellic Acid A Administration on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Renal Mass Reduction Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:16:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5125980/ Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with chaetomellic acid A (CAA) on oxidative stress and renal function in a model of renal mass reduction. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (RMR) or sham-operated (SO). One week after surgery, rats have been divided into four experimental groups: RMR: RMR rats without treatment ; RMR + CAA: RMR rats treated with CAA ; SO: SO rats without treatment ; and SO + CAA: SO rats treated with CAA . CAA was intraperitoneally administered in a dose of 0.23 µg/Kg three times a week for six months. Results. RMR was accompanied by a significant reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio. CAA administration significantly increased catalase and GR activity and increased GSH/GSSG ratio, but no significant difference between the treated and nontreated groups was found in this ratio. No significant differences were found between the RMR groups in any of the parameters of renal function. However, CAA administration slightly improves some parameters of renal function. Conclusions. These data suggest that CAA could attenuate 5/6 RMR-induced oxidative stress. António Nogueira, Francisco Peixoto, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Carlos André Pires, Bruno Colaço, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, and Maria João Pires Copyright © 2017 António Nogueira et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Activities of Stauntonia hexaphylla Leaf Constituents on Rat Lens Aldose Reductase and Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products and Antioxidant Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:54:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4273257/ Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decne. (Lardizabalaceae) leaves (SHL) have been used traditionally as analgesics, sedatives, diuretics, and so on, in China. To date, no data have been reported on the inhibitory effect of SHL and its constituents on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Therefore, the inhibitory effect of compounds isolated from SHL extract on RLAR and AGEs was investigated to evaluate potential treatments of diabetic complications. The ethyl acetate (EtOAC) fraction of SHL extract showed strong inhibitory activity on RLAR and AGEs; therefore, EtOAc fraction (3.0 g) was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, for further fractionation, with 100% MeOH solvent system to investigate its effect on RLAR and AGEs. Phytochemical investigation of SHL led to the isolation of seven compounds. Among the isolated compounds, chlorogenic acid, calceolarioside B, luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited significant inhibitory activity against RLAR with IC50 in the range of 7.34–23.99 μM. In addition, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs, with an IC50 value of 115.07–184.06 μM, compared to the positive control aminoguanidine (820.44 μM). Based on these findings, SHL dietary supplements could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes complication. Seung Hwan Hwang, Shin Hwa Kwon, Set Byeol Kim, and Soon Sung Lim Copyright © 2017 Seung Hwan Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Cooccurrences of Putative Endogenous Retrovirus-Associated Diseases Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:14:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7973165/ At least 8% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences. ERVs play a role in placental morphogenesis and can sometimes protect the host against exogenous viruses. On the other hand, ERV reactivation has been found to be associated with different diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Little is known about the cooccurrence of these diseases. If all these diseases are caused by ERV, antiretroviral therapy should perhaps also show some effects in the other diseases. Here, we summarize literature demonstrating that some ERV-associated diseases seem to appear together more often than expected, for example, MS and ALS, MS and T1D, MS and schizophrenia, or ALS and T1D. In contrast, some ERV-associated diseases seem to appear together less frequently than expected, for example, schizophrenia and T1D. Besides, some reports demonstrate amelioration of MS, ALS, or schizophrenia under antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. If such results could be confirmed in larger studies, alternative therapy strategies for ERV-associated diseases like MS and schizophrenia might be possible. Christine Brütting, Alexander Emmer, Malte E. Kornhuber, and Martin S. Staege Copyright © 2017 Christine Brütting et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasound-Guided versus Fluoroscopy-Guided Deep Cervical Plexus Block for the Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:12:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4654803/ Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of ultrasound-guided deep cervical plexus block with fluoroscopy-guided deep cervical plexus block for patients with cervicogenic headache (CeH). Methods. A total of 56 patients with CeH were recruited and randomly assigned to either the ultrasound-guided (US) or the fluoroscopy-guided (FL) injection group. A mixture of 2–4 mL 1% lidocaine and 7 mg betamethasone was injected along C2 and/or C3 transverse process. The measurement of pain was evaluated by patients’ ratings of a 10-point numerical pain scale (NPS) before and 2 wks, 12 wks, and 24 wks after treatments. Results. The blocking procedures were well tolerated. The pain intensity, as measured by NPS, significantly decreased at 2 wks after injection treatment in both US and FL groups, respectively, compared with that of baseline (P < 0.05). The blocking procedures had continued, and comparable pain relieving effects appeared at 12 wks and 24 wks after treatment in both US and FL groups. There were no significant differences observed in the NPS before and 2 wks, 12 wks, and 24 wks after treatment between US and FL groups. Conclusions. The US-guided approach showed similar satisfactory effect as the FL-guided block. Ultrasonography can be an alternative method for its convenience and efficacy in deep cervical plexus block for CeH patients without radiation exposure. Qing Wan, Haiyun Yang, Xiao Li, Caina Lin, Songjian Ke, Shaoling Wu, and Chao Ma Copyright © 2017 Qing Wan et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Analysis of Two Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus Variants-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Mice and Dogs: The First Report in China, 2015 Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:23:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6707868/ Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes acute viral infection in chickens worldwide. It can infect chickens of all ages, but the disease is seen only in young chickens and is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles, atrophic changes in the lymphoid organs, aplastic bone marrow, and immunosuppression causing increased mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that CIAV can be isolated from blood specimens of humans and fecal samples of stray cats. In the present study, two variants of CIAV were isolated from fecal samples of mice (CIAV-Mouse) and stray dogs (CIAV-Dog), respectively. The genome of the two CIAV variants was sequenced and the results of the recombination detection program suggested that the CIAV-Dog strain could be a recombinant viral strain generated from parental CIAV strains, AB119448 and GD-1-12, with high confidence. Particularly, these findings were obtained from the comparison of genetic diversity and the relationship of CIAV between different hosts. This is the first report indicating that there is a significant difference in the number of transcription factor binding sites in CIAV noncoding regions from different hosts. Further studies are required to investigate the large geographic distribution of CIAV and monitor the variants, host range, and associated diseases. Lichun Fang, Yang Li, Yixin Wang, Jiayuan Fu, Shuai Cui, Xiaohan Li, Shuang Chang, and Peng Zhao Copyright © 2017 Lichun Fang et al. All rights reserved. Duodenal Atresia: Open versus MIS Repair—Analysis of Our Experience over the Last 12 Years Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:14:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4585360/ Objective. Duodenal atresia (DA) routinely has been corrected by laparotomy and duodenoduodenostomy with excellent long-term results. We revisited the patients with DA treated in the last 12 years (2004–2016) comparing the open and the minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach. Methods. We divided our cohort of patients into two groups. Group 1 included 10 patients with CDO (2004–09) treated with open procedure: 5, DA; 3, duodenal web; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Three presented with Down’s syndrome while 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Group 2 included 8 patients (2009–16): 1, web; 5, DA; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Seven were treated by MIS; 1 was treated by Endoscopy. Three presented with Down’s syndrome; 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Results. Average operating time was 120 minutes in Group 1 and 190 minutes in Group 2. In MIS Group the visualization was excellent. We recorded no intraoperative complications, conversions, or anastomotic leakage. Feedings started on 3–7 postoperative days. Follow-up showed no evidence of stricture or obstruction. In Group 1 feedings started within 10–22 days and we have 1 postoperative obstruction. Conclusions. Laparoscopic repair of DA is one of the most challenging procedures among pediatric laparoscopic procedures. These patients had a shorter length of hospitalization and more rapid advancement to full feeding compared to patients undergoing the open approach. Laparoscopic repair of DA could be the preferred technique, safe, and efficacious, in the hands of experienced surgeons. Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza, Valeria Bucci, Maria Luisa Conighi, Elisa Zolpi, Lorenzo Costa, Lorella Fasoli, and Cosimo Bleve Copyright © 2017 Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza et al. All rights reserved. A Potential of sFasL in Preventing Gland Injury in Sjogren’s Syndrome Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:07:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5981432/ Fas and its ligand FasL, members of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, have been implicated in the process of cell apoptosis. FasL consists of two forms, membrane FasL (mFasL) and soluble FasL (sFasL). sFasL can be produced by mFasL cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and also reveals a role for binding to Fas which is expressed on cell surface. Although Fas/FasL axis has been implicated in a variety of diseases, its role in Sjogren’s syndrome still remains ill defined. In this study, we investigated the potential of sFasL in the pathogenesis of Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). We found that the serum levels of sFasL in SS patients were significantly lower than healthy subjects. Moreover, serum levels of sFasL in patients with mild disease activity were higher than patients with severe disease activity. There is a positive correlation of the serum level of sFasL with uptake index of parotid gland in our expectation. In addition, liver injury involvement in SS patients showed decreased level of sFasL. Furthermore, we here also observed that the protective cytokine IL-10 expression was positively correlated with sFasL expression. Thus, our results here suggest a potential of sFasL in maintaining gland organ homeostasis. Jiao Luo, Ying Wang, Bing Yu, Hongyan Qian, Yan He, and Guixiu Shi Copyright © 2017 Jiao Luo et al. All rights reserved. Ameliorating Effect of Gemigliptin on Renal Injury in Murine Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7275109/ Background. Previous studies have shown the antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-IV inhibitor in experimental models of renal injury. We tested whether DPP-IV inhibitor (gemigliptin) ameliorates renal injury by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice with adriamycin nephropathy. Methods. Mice were treated with normal saline (control), gemigliptin (GM), adriamycin (ADR), or adriamycin combined with gemigliptin (ADR+GM). Apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress were analyzed via western blotting, real-time PCR, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Results. In the ADR+GM group, urine albumin creatinine ratio decreased significantly compared with that in the ADR group on day 15. Glomerulosclerosis index and tubulointerstitial injury index in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreased after gemigliptin treatment. ADR group showed higher levels of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress-related molecules compared with the control group. The upregulation of these molecules was significantly reduced by gemigliptin. In the ADR group, the staining intensities of WT-1 and nephrin reduced, but these changes were ameliorated in the ADR+GM group. Conclusion. We demonstrated that gemigliptin ameliorates nephropathy by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice administered adriamycin. Our data demonstrate that gemigliptin has renoprotective effects on adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Da Rae Kim, Shin Yeong Lee, Jin Sug Kim, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Sang Ho Lee, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyoo Ihm, and Kyung Hwan Jeong Copyright © 2017 Da Rae Kim et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Incorporated with Manuka Honey of Varying UMF Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4843065/ Purpose. Manuka honey (MH) is an antibacterial agent specific to the islands of New Zealand containing both hydrogen peroxide and a Unique Manuka Factor (UMF). Although the antibacterial properties of MH have been studied, the effect of varying UMF of MH incorporated into tissue engineered scaffolds have not. Therefore, this study was designed to compare silk fibroin cryogels and electrospun scaffolds incorporated with a 5% MH concentration of various UMF. Methods. Characteristics such as porosity, bacterial clearance and adhesion, and cytotoxicity were compared. Results. Pore diameters for all cryogels were between 51 and 60 µm, while electrospun scaffolds were 10 µm. Cryogels of varying UMF displayed clearance of approximately 0.16 cm for E. coli and S. aureus. In comparison, the electrospun scaffolds clearance ranged between 0.5 and 1 cm. A glucose release of 0.5 mg/mL was observed for the first 24 hours by all scaffolds, regardless of UMF. With respect to cytotoxicity, neither scaffold caused the cell number to drop below 20,000. Conclusions. Overall, when comparing the effects of the various UMF within the two scaffolds, no significant differences were observed. This suggests that the fabricated scaffolds in this study displayed similar bacterial effects regardless of the UMF value. Katherine R. Hixon, Tracy Lu, Sarah H. McBride-Gagyi, Blythe E. Janowiak, and Scott A. Sell Copyright © 2017 Katherine R. Hixon et al. All rights reserved. YCl3 Promotes Neuronal Cell Death by Inducing Apoptotic Pathways in Rats Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2183658/ The pollutants rare earth elements (REEs) have posed great threats to human health. To investigate the cytotoxicity of yttrium (Y), a model that rats have free access to water containing YCl3 for 6 months is utilized. The results showed that YCl3 treatment promoted neuronal cell apoptosis by upregulating the proapoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3, Cyto c, and DAPK and by downregulating the antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and XIAP at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusively, YCl3 exhibited cytotoxicity and promoted neuronal cell death by the induction of apoptotic pathways. Yechun Ding, Yuantong Tian, Zhaoyi Zeng, Ping Shuai, Haiying Lan, Xianshen Zhu, Yi Zhong, Longhuo Wu, and Xiaona Fan Copyright © 2017 Yechun Ding et al. All rights reserved. Could Early Surgery Get Beneficial in Adult Patients with Active Native Infective Endocarditis? A Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3459468/ After a thorough search through the database as PubMed database and Embase database, the clinical experimental articles have been selected out on the effects of early surgery on the treatment of active native infective endocarditis. The quality of the trials included in this study was assessed by researcher according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.0. A meta-analysis was carried out in terms of clinical efficacy criteria by RevMan 5.3 software. Based on the results, we cautiously conclude that early surgery used for active native infective endocarditis could reduce in-hospital mortality, follow-up mortality, and IE-related mortality. Liqun Jia, Zanxin Wang, Qiang Fu, Huaien Bu, and Minxin Wei Copyright © 2017 Liqun Jia et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Induced by Polymyxin E Is Involved in Rapid Killing of Paenibacillus polymyxa Wed, 22 Feb 2017 14:12:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5437139/ Historically, the colistin has been thought to kill bacteria through membrane lysis. Here, we present an alternative mechanism that colistin induces rapid Paenibacillus polymyxa death through reactive oxygen species production. This significantly augments our understanding of the mechanism of colistin action, which is critical knowledge toward the yield development of colistin in the future. Zhiliang Yu, Yuyi Zhu, Wangrong Qin, Jianhua Yin, and Juanping Qiu Copyright © 2017 Zhiliang Yu et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI Wed, 22 Feb 2017 12:45:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8392952/ The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice () was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters. Zhi Zuo, Anne Subgang, Alireza Abaei, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Detlef Stiller, Genshan Ma, and Volker Rasche Copyright © 2017 Zhi Zuo et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio, and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:43:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3047802/ The peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to correlate with the prognosis of many malignancies. This study evaluated the prognostic value of pretreatment NLR, LMR, and PLR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological data of 140 NPC patients without distant metastasis during initial treatment was conducted to identify correlations between NLR, LMR, and PLR and clinicopathological features, overall survival, and progression-free survival. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to reveal the independent factors affecting the prognosis of NPC patients. NLR was associated with T staging, N staging, and overall clinical stage grouping of the NPC patients (). NLR ≥ 2.28, LMR < 2.26, and PLR ≥ 174 were significantly associated with a relatively short overall survival (). In addition, NLR ≥ 2.28 was significantly associated with a relatively short progression-free survival (). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that NLR was an independent prognostic factor in NPC. Pretreatment NLR, LMR, and PLR might be a useful complement to TNM staging in the prognostic assessment of NPC patients. Aiying Lu, Haifeng Li, Yuming Zheng, Minzhong Tang, Jun Li, Huihui Wu, Weiming Zhong, Jianquan Gao, Ningjiang Ou, and Yonglin Cai Copyright © 2017 Aiying Lu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Sequential Screening and Enhanced Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme by Bacillus sp. IND12 Using Response Surface Methodology in Solid-State Fermentation Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:39:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3909657/ Fibrinolytic enzymes have wide applications in clinical and waste treatment. Bacterial isolates were screened for fibrinolytic enzyme producing ability by skimmed milk agar plate using bromocresol green dye, fibrin plate method, zymography analysis, and goat blood clot lysis. After these sequential screenings, Bacillus sp. IND12 was selected for fibrinolytic enzyme production. Bacillus sp. IND12 effectively used cow dung for its growth and enzyme production ( U/g substrate). Further, the optimum bioprocess parameters were found out for maximum fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung as a low cost substrate under solid-state fermentation. Two-level full-factorial experiments revealed that moisture, pH, sucrose, peptone, and MgSO4 were the vital parameters with statistical significance (). Three factors (moisture, sucrose, and MgSO4) were further studied through experiments of central composite rotational design and response surface methodology. Enzyme production of optimized medium showed  U/g material, which was more than fourfold the initial enzyme production ( U/g). The analysis of variance showed that the developed response surface model was highly significant (). The fibrinolytic enzyme digested goat blood clot (100%), chicken skin (%), egg white (100%), and bovine serum albumin (%). Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, P. Rajendran, Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent, Arumugaperumal Arun, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Oh Young Kwon, and Young Ock Kim Copyright © 2017 Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan et al. All rights reserved. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:22:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6343821/ The ratio of densities of Na-Ca exchanger current () in the t-tubular and surface membranes (-ratio) computed from the values of and membrane capacitances () measured in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes before and after detubulation ranges between 1.7 and 25 (potentially even 40). Variations of action potential waveform and of calcium turnover within this span of the -ratio were simulated employing previously developed model of rat ventricular cell incorporating separate description of ion transport systems in the t-tubular and surface membranes. The increase of -ratio from 1.7 to 25 caused a prolongation of APD (duration of action potential at 90% repolarisation) by 12, 9, and 6% and an increase of peak intracellular Ca2+ transient by 45, 19, and 6% at 0.1, 1, and 5 Hz, respectively. The prolonged APD resulted from the increase of due to the exposure of a larger fraction of Na-Ca exchangers to higher Ca2+ transients under the t-tubular membrane. The accompanying rise of Ca2+ transient was a consequence of a higher Ca2+ load in sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by the increased Ca2+ cycling between the surface and t-tubular membranes. However, the reason for large differences in the -ratio assessed from measurements in adult rat cardiomyocytes remains to be explained. M. Pásek, J. Šimurda, and G. Christé Copyright © 2017 M. Pásek et al. All rights reserved. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP Initiate the Coronary Artery Calcification in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:02:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2520510/ Background. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) contributes to high risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in dialysis patients. However, the risk factors for CAC initiation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not known clearly. Methods. Adult patients with baseline CaCS = 0 and who were followed up for at least 3 years or until the conversion from absent to any measurable CAC detected were included in this observational cohort study. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. Results. 70 patients recruited to our study were split into a noninitiation group () and an initiation group () according to the conversion of any measurable CAC during their follow-up or not. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, serum creatinine, and triglycerides were positively associated with the initiation of CAC, while the high density lipoprotein and nPCR did the opposite function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation after adjustments. Conclusions. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. These results suggested potential clinical strategies to prevent the initiation of CAC in PD patients. Da Shang, Qionghong Xie, Bin Shang, Min Zhang, Li You, Chuan-Ming Hao, and Tongying Zhu Copyright © 2017 Da Shang et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Role of the MicroRNA-200 Family in Various Carcinomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 22 Feb 2017 09:54:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1928021/ Background/Aims. The miRNA-200 (miR-200) family may act as key inhibitors of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the potential prognostic value of miR-200s in various human malignancies remains controversial. This meta-analysis analyzed the associations between miR-200 levels and survival outcomes in a variety of tumors. Methods. Eligible published studies were identified by searching the Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar databases. Patient clinical data were pooled, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to calculate the strength of this association. Results. The pooled HRs suggested that high tissue expression of miR-200 family members was associated with better survival (overall survival [OS]: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91; progression-free survival [PFS]: HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.52–0.76) in thirty-four eligible articles. In contrast, higher expression of circulating miR-200 members was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (OS, HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.15–2.46; PFS, HR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.68–4.07). Conclusion. The results from this meta-analysis suggest that miR-200 family members are potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with various carcinomas. To apply these findings in the clinic, large prospective studies are needed to validate the prognostic values of miR-200s in individual cancer types. Jung Soo Lee, Young-Ho Ahn, Hye Sung Won, Der Sheng Sun, Yeo Hyung Kim, and Yoon Ho Ko Copyright © 2017 Jung Soo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Haemagglutinin from a Polish Avian H5N1 Isolate and Its Immunological Effect in Preliminary Animal Trials Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:31:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6747482/ Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive, nonpathogenic microorganisms that are gaining much interest as antigen producers for development of live vaccine vectors. Heterologous proteins of different origin have been successfully expressed in various LAB species, including Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant L. lactis strains have been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune responses against various antigens. Our study aimed at constructing a L. lactis strain expressing haemagglutinin of a Polish avian H5H1 influenza isolate and examining its effect on animals. Expression of the cloned H5 gene was achieved using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. Detection of the intracellular H5 antigen produced in L. lactis was performed by Western blot analysis and confirmed using mass spectrometry. The potential of L. lactis recombinant cells to induce an immune response was examined by setting up preliminary immunization trials on chickens and mice. Obtained sera were tested for specific antibodies by ELISA assays. The results of these studies are a promising step toward developing a vaccine against the bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as bioreactors for efficient antigen production and delivery to the mucosal surface. Agnieszka K. Szczepankowska, Katarzyna Szatraj, Przemysław Sałański, Agnieszka Rózga, Roman K. Górecki, and Jacek K. Bardowski Copyright © 2017 Agnieszka K. Szczepankowska et al. All rights reserved. PTEN Reduced UVB-Mediated Apoptosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Wed, 22 Feb 2017 07:24:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3681707/ Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness and progressive loss of central vision in the elderly population. The important factor of AMD pathogenesis is the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by oxidative stress. Inactivation of PTEN can disrupt intercellular adhesion in the RPE cells, but the mechanism of oxidative stress is less known. Here we presented evidence that UVB-mediated oxidative stress induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Downregulation of the expression of PTEN in UVB-irradiative RPE cells triggered DNA damage and increased the level of UVB-induced apoptosis by activating p53-dependent pathway. However, overexpression of PTEN increased cell survival by suppressing p-H2A in response to DNA damage and apoptosis. When using Pifithrin-α (one of p53 inhibitors), the level of p53-dependent apoptosis was significantly lower than untreated, which suggested that p53 was possibly involved in PTEN-dependent apoptosis. Thus, it elucidated the molecular mechanisms of UVB-induced damage in RPE cells and may offer an alternative therapeutic target in dry AMD. Jia He, Chongde Long, Zixin Huang, Xin Zhou, Xielan Kuang, Lanying Liu, Huijun Liu, Yan Tang, Yuting Fan, Jie Ning, Xinqi Ma, Qingjiong Zhang, and Huangxuan Shen Copyright © 2017 Jia He et al. All rights reserved. Fluid-Structure Interaction in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect of Modeling Techniques Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7023078/ In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI. On the contrary, the minimal differences in wall stresses and deformation were observed between FSI and CSS models. Furthermore, it was found that the accuracy of CSS prediction depends on the applied pressure profile for the aneurysm sac. A large pressure drop across AAA usually led to the underestimation of wall stresses and thus the AAA rupture. Moreover, the assumed isotropic AAA wall properties, compared to the anisotropic one, will aggravate the difference between the simplified models with the FSI approach. The present work demonstrated the importance of modeling techniques on predicting the blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics of the AAA, which could guide the selection of appropriate modeling technique for significant clinical implications. Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Yonghua Bi, Siyeong Ju, and Linxia Gu Copyright © 2017 Shengmao Lin et al. All rights reserved. Could the Topping-Off Technique Be the Preventive Strategy against Adjacent Segment Disease after Pedicle Screw-Based Fusion in Lumbar Degenerative Diseases? A Systematic Review Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4385620/ The “topping-off” technique is a new concept applying dynamic or less rigid fixation such as hybrid stabilization device (HSD) or interspinous process device (IPD) for the purpose of avoiding adjacent segment disease (ASD) proximal to the fusion construct. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the effect of topping-off techniques to prevent or decrease the occurrence of ASD after lumbar fusion surgery. We searched through major online databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, using key words related to “topping-off” technique. We reviewed the surgical results of “topping-off” techniques with either HSD or IPD, including the incidence of ASD at two proximal adjacent levels (index and supra-adjacent level) as compared to the fusion alone group. The results showed that the fusion alone group had statistically higher incidence of radiographic (52.6%) and symptomatic (11.6%) ASD at the index level as well as higher incidence (8.1%) of revision surgery. Besides, the HSD (10.5%) and fusion groups (24.7%) had statistically higher incidences of radiographic ASD at supra-adjacent level than the IPD (1%). The findings suggest that the “topping-off” technique may potentially decrease the occurrence of ASD at the proximal motion segments. However, higher quality prospective randomized trials are required prior to wide clinical application. Po-Hsin Chou, Hsi-Hsien Lin, Howard S. An, Kang-Ying Liu, Wei-Ren Su, and Cheng-Li Lin Copyright © 2017 Po-Hsin Chou et al. All rights reserved. Medical and Interventional Therapy for Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection in the Craniocervical Segment Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7859719/ Background and Purpose. Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (SVAD) is an important reason for posterior-circulation-ischemic stroke in the young and middle-aged population. Although some previous reports reveal a favorable outcome with conservative therapy, it is still controversial in the treatment of SVAD in some specific patients. Herein, we present our 10 years of clinical experience for SVAD at this location. Material and Methods. 20 patients with 20 SVADs in V2 and V3 segments were retrospectively studied. Clinical manifestations and imageology materials were collected and analyzed. All the patients underwent anticoagulation except for one patient because of contraindication. 14 patients underwent Wingspan stents implantation with general anesthesia. Results. In our sample, ischemia (infarction or transient ischemic attack, TIA) was found in all the patients. Angiographic stenosis and dissection aneurysm were the most common findings in the segments mentioned above. 19 of the patients (95%) got the excellent imageological and clinical outcomes. Conclusions. According to our experience in this group, although anticoagulation is effective in vertebral artery dissection, interventional therapy for SVADs in V2 and/or V3 segments is preferred in some specific patients. Stent with higher radial supporting and flexibility, such as Wingspan stent, is suggested. Guiyun Zhang and Zuoquan Chen Copyright © 2017 Guiyun Zhang and Zuoquan Chen. All rights reserved.