BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:59:17 +0000 Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P) to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas. Kai Chen, Minjie Ni, Minggang Cai, Jun Wang, Dongren Huang, Huorong Chen, Xiao Wang, and Mengyang Liu Copyright © 2016 Kai Chen et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:34:49 +0000 This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved () the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased () the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower () when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased () the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits. Maidelys Iser, Yordan Martínez, Hengjia Ni, Hongmei Jiang, Manuel Valdivié Navarro, Xiaosong Wu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Manuel Rosales, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, and Jun Fang Copyright © 2016 Maidelys Iser et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Obesity in Sepsis Outcome among Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis Thu, 29 Sep 2016 05:45:00 +0000 Background. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between sepsis, obesity, and mortality of patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Subjects and Methods. Data of all patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital during a 28-month period were retrospectively analyzed and included in the study. Results. Of 834 patients included, 163 (19.5%) were obese, while 25 (3.0%) were morbidly obese. Number of comorbidities (), bloodstream infection (), and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization during ICU stay () were significantly associated with obesity, while nonobese patients suffered more frequently from spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (). Total ICU mortality was 22.5%. Increased mortality among obese ICU patients was observed. Sepsis was the main condition of admission for which obese patients had statistically lower survival than normal weight subjects (76.3% versus 43.7%; ). Mortality of septic patients upon admission was independently associated with SOFA score upon ICU admission (), obesity (), pneumonia (), and development of septic shock (). Conclusions. Our study revealed that sepsis upon ICU admission is adversely influenced by obesity but further studies are needed in order to assess the role of obesity in sepsis outcome. Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Diamanto Aretha, Anastasia Zotou, Kyriaki Koutsileou, Aikaterini Zbouki, Aikaterini Lefkaditi, Christina Sklavou, Markos Marangos, and Fotini Fligou Copyright © 2016 Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris et al. All rights reserved. Expansion of Submucosal Bladder Wall Tissue In Vitro and In Vivo Thu, 29 Sep 2016 05:44:33 +0000 In order to develop autologous tissue engineering of the whole wall in the urinary excretory system, we studied the regenerative capacity of the muscular bladder wall. Smooth muscle cell expansion on minced detrusor muscle in vitro and in vivo with or without urothelial tissue was studied. Porcine minced detrusor muscle and urothelium were cultured in vitro under standard culture conditions for evaluation of the explant technique and in collagen for tissue sectioning and histology. Autografts of minced detrusor muscle with or without minced urothelium were expanded on 3D cylinder moulds by grafting into the subcutaneous fat of the pig abdominal wall. Moulds without autografts were used as controls. Tissue harvesting, mincing, and transplantation were performed as a one-step procedure. Cells from minced detrusor muscle specimens migrated and expanded in vitro on culture plastic and in collagen. In vivo studies with minced detrusor autografts demonstrated expansion and regeneration in all specimens. Minced urothelium autografts showed multilayered transitional urothelium when transplanted alone but not in cotransplantation with detrusor muscle; thus, minced bladder mucosa was not favored by cografting with minced detrusor. No regeneration of smooth muscle or epithelium was seen in controls. Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg, Clara Ibel Chamorro, Agneta Nordenskjöld, and Magdalena Fossum Copyright © 2016 Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro and In Vivo Biofilm Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Patients Associated with Pharyngitis Infection Wed, 28 Sep 2016 15:31:41 +0000 The present investigation was deliberately aimed at evaluating the biofilm-forming ability of 63 clinical MRSA isolates recovered from pharyngitis patients through different phenotypic assays. The molecular detection of adhesion (icaA/icaD/icaB/icaC), adhesins (fnbA/fnbB, clfA, and cna), staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA), and α-toxin (hla) genes was done by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 63 isolates, 49 (77.8%) were found slime positive by the Congo red agar (CRA) method and 44 (69.8%) as biofilm positive by the quantitative microtitre plate assays. The results of MATH assay showed that most of the test pathogens are hydrophilic in nature. The molecular investigation of biofilm-associated genes revealed that 84.13% () of isolates were found positive for icaADBC genes. The fnbA and fnbB genes were present in 49 (77.8%) and 51 (81%) MRSA isolates, respectively. In addition, 58.7% (), 73% (), and 69.8% () of the isolates harboured the clfA, cna, and hla genes, respectively. Further, nearly 81% () of the isolates were found positive for the gene sarA and all the ica negative isolates were also negative for the gene. Furthermore, the results of in vivo adherence assay unveiled the factual commonness in the in vitro adherence method. Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, and Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian Copyright © 2016 Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in Healthy Pet Cats Kept in the City Households Wed, 28 Sep 2016 15:29:11 +0000 Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both human medicine and veterinary medicine. The importance of pets as reservoirs of human infections is still poorly understood. This article provides detailed information of a cross-sectional study of a S. aureus colonization in clinically healthy indoor cats. The study systematically assessed a number of different anatomical locations for the S. aureus colonization and the influence of a range of potential risk factors on the value of the final S. aureus colonization rate. The incidence rates observed for cats with at least one site positive for S. aureus or MRSA were 17.5% and 6.63%, respectively. The following risk factors were identified: one or more owners working in the healthcare industry (human or veterinary); dogs being kept with the cat under investigation; treatment of the cat under investigation with antibiotics or chemotherapeutics during the previous year. In conclusion, this study revealed a higher prevalence of MRSA than what has previously been reported in healthy pets. A combination of anatomical locations from which the samples were collected had a major influence on the final value of the S. aureus colonization rate. Karolina Bierowiec, Katarzyna Płoneczka-Janeczko, and Krzysztof Rypuła Copyright © 2016 Karolina Bierowiec et al. All rights reserved. Extrapedicular Infiltration Anesthesia as an Improved Method of Local Anesthesia for Unipedicular Percutaneous Vertebroplasty or Percutaneous Kyphoplasty Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:24:57 +0000 Aim. This report introduces extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia as an improved method of local anesthesia for unipedicular percutaneous vertebroplasty or percutaneous kyphoplasty. Method. From March 2015 to March 2016, 44 patients (11 males and 33 females) with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with a mean age of years (range: 60 to 89) received percutaneous vertebroplasty or percutaneous kyphoplasty. 24 patients were managed with conventional local infiltration anesthesia (CLIA) and 20 patients with both CLIA and extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia (EPIA). Patients evaluated intraoperative pain by means of the visual analogue score and were monitored during the procedure for additional sedative analgesia needs and for adverse nerve root effects. Results. VAS of CLIA + EPIA and CLIA group was and respectively, and there was significant difference (). In CLIA group, 1 patient required additional sedative analgesia, but in CLIA + EPIA group, no patients required that. In the two groups, no adverse nerve root effects were noted. Summary. Extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia provided good local anesthetic effects without significant complications. This method deserves further consideration for use in unipedicular percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty. Liehua Liu, Shiming Cheng, Rui Lu, and Qiang Zhou Copyright © 2016 Liehua Liu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:46:13 +0000 Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children’s body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture. Justyna Wyszyńska, Justyna Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna Drzał-Grabiec, Maciej Rachwał, Joanna Baran, Ewelina Czenczek-Lewandowska, Justyna Leszczak, and Artur Mazur Copyright © 2016 Justyna Wyszyńska et al. All rights reserved. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:44:28 +0000 Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development. Yi Ma, Jieying Yu, Jinglian Lin, Shaomin Wu, Shan Li, and Jufang Wang Copyright © 2016 Yi Ma et al. All rights reserved. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:20:18 +0000 Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, and George Johannes Chirima Copyright © 2016 Maryam Bello-Akinosho et al. All rights reserved. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease Wed, 28 Sep 2016 10:12:33 +0000 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease. Kosuke Kawaguchi and Masashi Morita Copyright © 2016 Kosuke Kawaguchi and Masashi Morita. All rights reserved. Computer Based Melanocytic and Nevus Image Enhancement and Segmentation Wed, 28 Sep 2016 07:51:29 +0000 Digital dermoscopy aids dermatologists in monitoring potentially cancerous skin lesions. Melanoma is the 5th common form of skin cancer that is rare but the most dangerous. Melanoma is curable if it is detected at an early stage. Automated segmentation of cancerous lesion from normal skin is the most critical yet tricky part in computerized lesion detection and classification. The effectiveness and accuracy of lesion classification are critically dependent on the quality of lesion segmentation. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach that can automatically preprocess the image and then segment the lesion. The system filters unwanted artifacts including hairs, gel, bubbles, and specular reflection. A novel approach is presented using the concept of wavelets for detection and inpainting the hairs present in the cancer images. The contrast of lesion with the skin is enhanced using adaptive sigmoidal function that takes care of the localized intensity distribution within a given lesion’s images. We then present a segmentation approach to precisely segment the lesion from the background. The proposed approach is tested on the European database of dermoscopic images. Results are compared with the competitors to demonstrate the superiority of the suggested approach. Uzma Jamil, M. Usman Akram, Shehzad Khalid, Sarmad Abbas, and Kashif Saleem Copyright © 2016 Uzma Jamil et al. All rights reserved. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors” Tue, 27 Sep 2016 15:43:34 +0000 The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged ) and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged and 8 fathers aged ) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA. Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Beata Pluta, Janusz Maciaszek, Maciej Tomczak, and Agata Glapa Copyright © 2016 Michał Bronikowski et al. All rights reserved. Retrograde versus Antegrade Approach for the Management of Large Proximal Ureteral Stones Tue, 27 Sep 2016 14:14:41 +0000 Objective. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of retrograde versus antegrade ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with proximal ureteral stones >15 mm, treated in our institution from January 2011 to January 2016. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative outcomes, and complications were recorded and compared between the two techniques. Results. Our analysis included 57 patients. Thirty-four patients (59.6%) underwent retrograde and 23 patients (40.4%) underwent antegrade ureteroscopy. There was no significant difference in patients’ demographics and stone characteristics between the groups. Stone-free rate was significantly higher () in the antegrade group (100%) compared to retrograde one (82.4%). Fluoroscopy time, procedure duration, and length of hospitalization were significantly () lower in retrograde approach. On the other hand, the need for postoperative stenting was significantly lower in the antegrade group (). No difference was found between the groups () regarding postoperative complications. Conclusions. Antegrade ureteroscopy is an efficient and safe option for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. It may achieve high stone-free rates compared to retrograde ureteroscopy with the drawback of longer operative time, fluoroscopy time, and length of hospitalization. Stavros Sfoungaristos, Ioannis Mykoniatis, Ayman Isid, Ofer N. Gofrit, Shilo Rosenberg, Guy Hidas, Ezekiel H. Landau, Dov Pode, and Mordechai Duvdevani Copyright © 2016 Stavros Sfoungaristos et al. All rights reserved. Late Presentation of HIV Infection: Prevalence, Trends, and the Role of HIV Testing Strategies in Guangzhou, China, 2008–2013 Tue, 27 Sep 2016 12:58:01 +0000 Background. The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods. Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results. Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653) and 27.3% (724/2653) met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 (); presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 (). Of the three testing strategies, PITC presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73); PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42)] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11); PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39)]. Conclusions. Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis. Weibin Cheng, Weiming Tang, Zhigang Han, Thitikarn May Tangthanasup, Fei Zhong, Faju Qin, and Huifang Xu Copyright © 2016 Weibin Cheng et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Management of Inflammation in the HIV Population Tue, 27 Sep 2016 12:23:20 +0000 Advancements in antiretroviral therapy have drastically increased the life expectancy for those infected with HIV. Today, a new subgroup of older patients with long-term controlled HIV exists, and its populace is continuously mounting. Therefore, it is essential to understand the enduring effects of chronic suppressed HIV infection in order to further improve HIV management in these patients. This paper will examine the role of HIV in chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction, the dynamic interaction that exists between comorbidity and HIV, and the potential consequences of long-term antiretroviral therapy in an effort to provide the best management options for the virally suppressed HIV patient. Jihad Slim and Christopher F. Saling Copyright © 2016 Jihad Slim and Christopher F. Saling. All rights reserved. Relationship between Frontal Gap and Postoperative Stability in the Treatment of Mandibular Prognathism Tue, 27 Sep 2016 11:25:58 +0000 Objectives. To investigate the correlation between frontal gaps and skeletal stability after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) for correction of mandibular prognathism. Materials and Methods. Thirty-three patients with frontal gaps after IVRO-based mandibular prognathism correction were included. Three lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs were obtained: preoperatively (T1), immediately postoperatively (T2), and 2 years postoperatively (T3). Two linear measurements (menton [Me] and frontal gap) were compared from T1 to T3 (T21: immediate surgical changes; T32: postoperative stability; T31: 2-year surgical change). Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results. The T21 mean surgical horizontal change in the Me position was  mm. Vertically, the mean downward Me movement was  mm. The mean frontal gaps were  mm and  mm in the right and left gonial regions, respectively. Postoperative stability (T32) significantly correlated with the amount of setback. Frontal gaps did not have a significant effect on postoperative stability. However, multiple regression model (, ) showed value predictability, especially in the amount of setback. Conclusion. Frontal gaps occur after IVRO but have no significant effect on long-term postoperative skeletal stability. The primary risk factor for postoperative relapse remains the amount of mandibular setback. Yu-Chuan Tseng, Kun-Jung Hsu, Ker-Kong Chen, Ju-Hui Wu, and Chun-Ming Chen Copyright © 2016 Yu-Chuan Tseng et al. All rights reserved. The Prognosis of Cardiac Origin and Noncardiac Origin in-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Occurring during Night Shifts Tue, 27 Sep 2016 11:22:36 +0000 Background. The survival rates of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) are reportedly low at night, but the difference between the survival rates of cardiac origin and noncardiac origin IHCAs occurring at night remains unclear. Methods. Outcomes of IHCAs during different shifts (night, day, and evening) were compared and stratified according to the etiology (cardiac and noncardiac origin). Result. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 24.7% lower for cardiac origin IHCA and 19.4% lower for noncardiac origin IHCA in the night shift than in the other shifts. The survival rate was 8.4% lower for cardiac origin IHCA occurring during the night shift, but there was no difference for noncardiac origin IHCA. After adjusting the potential confounders, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.3, CI: 0.15–0.63) and survival to discharge (aOR: 0.1; CI: 0.01–0.90) related to cardiac origin IHCA were lower during night shifts. Regarding noncardiac origin IHCA, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.78) were lower in the night shift, but chances of survival to discharge (aOR: 1.3, CI: 0.43–3.69) were similar in these two groups. Conclusion. IHCA occurring at night increases mortality, and this is more apparent for cardiac origin IHCAs than for noncardiac origin IHCA. Yuan-Jhen Syue, Jyun-Bin Huang, Fu-Jen Cheng, Chia-Te Kung, and Chao-Jui Li Copyright © 2016 Yuan-Jhen Syue et al. All rights reserved. Dual-Modality Imaging of the Human Finger Joint Systems by Using Combined Multispectral Photoacoustic Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Computed Tomography Tue, 27 Sep 2016 09:38:43 +0000 We developed a homemade dual-modality imaging system that combines multispectral photoacoustic computed tomography and ultrasound computed tomography for reconstructing the structural and functional information of human finger joint systems. The fused multispectral photoacoustic-ultrasound computed tomography (MPAUCT) system was examined by the phantom and in vivo experimental tests. The imaging results indicate that the hard tissues such as the bones and the soft tissues including the blood vessels, the tendon, the skins, and the subcutaneous tissues in the finger joints systems can be effectively recovered by using our multimodality MPAUCT system. The developed MPAUCT system is able to provide us with more comprehensive information of the human finger joints, which shows its potential for characterization and diagnosis of bone or joint diseases. Yubin Liu, Yating Wang, and Zhen Yuan Copyright © 2016 Yubin Liu et al. All rights reserved. SEM-EDS-Based Elemental Identification on the Enamel Surface after the Completion of Orthodontic Treatment: In Vitro Studies Tue, 27 Sep 2016 09:19:04 +0000 Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements. Monika Machoy, Julia Seeliger, Mariusz Lipski, Anna Wójcicka, Tomasz Gedrange, and Krzysztof Woźniak Copyright © 2016 Monika Machoy et al. All rights reserved. DTI Image Registration under Probabilistic Fiber Bundles Tractography Learning Tue, 27 Sep 2016 07:45:46 +0000 Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) image registration is an essential step for diffusion tensor image analysis. Most of the fiber bundle based registration algorithms use deterministic fiber tracking technique to get the white matter fiber bundles, which will be affected by the noise and volume. In order to overcome the above problem, we proposed a Diffusion Tensor Imaging image registration method under probabilistic fiber bundles tractography learning. Probabilistic tractography technique can more reasonably trace to the structure of the nerve fibers. The residual error estimation step in active sample selection learning is improved by modifying the residual error model using finite sample set. The calculated deformation field is then registered on the DTI images. The results of our proposed registration method are compared with 6 state-of-the-art DTI image registration methods under visualization and 3 quantitative evaluation standards. The experimental results show that our proposed method has a good comprehensive performance. Zhe Guo, Yi Wang, Tao Lei, Yangyu Fan, and Xiuwei Zhang Copyright © 2016 Zhe Guo et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of Thirteen Silicone Interocclusal Recording Materials Mon, 26 Sep 2016 16:49:01 +0000 Background. Addition silicones are popular as dental impression materials and are used in bite registration procedures. Objective. This study aimed to compare the postsetting elasticities and other mechanical properties of thirteen addition silicone interocclusal recording materials. Materials and Methods. The following materials were investigated: Colorbite D, Futar D, Genie Bite, Jet Blue Bite fast, Memoreg 2, O-Bite, Occlufast Rock, Omni-Bite Plus, Regidur i, Registrado X-tra, Regofix transparent, StoneBite, and Variotime Bite. Thirty specimens of each material were tested. The elasticities and strengths of the materials were measured with a universal testing machine, and computer software was used to determine the E-moduli, ultimate tensile strengths, and ultimate elongations of the specimens. Results. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (). The statistics revealed that the mean E-modulus values varied significantly across the materials () and were highest for the StoneBite and Registrado X-tra and lowest for the Regofix transparent. The ultimate tensile strengths were highest for the Regofix transparent and Registrado X-tra () and lowest for the Jet Blue Bite fast and Memoreg 2 (). The elongation percentages at the point of breaking varied significantly across the materials (); the lowest value was observed for the StoneBite, whereas the Regofix transparent nearly doubled original length. Conclusions. The authors concluded that materials with the high E-moduli and great ultimate tensile strengths may be most useful clinically. Registrado X-tra and StoneBite best met these criteria. Mieszko Wieckiewicz, Natalia Grychowska, Marek Zietek, and Wlodzimierz Wieckiewicz Copyright © 2016 Mieszko Wieckiewicz et al. All rights reserved. The Management of Patients after Surgical Treatment of Maxillofacial Tumors Mon, 26 Sep 2016 16:39:40 +0000 Morphological and functional disturbances induced by postsurgical defects and loss of tissues in the stomatognathic system due to the treatment of tumors in the maxillofacial region determine the therapeutic needs of patients. The study aimed at clinical and epidemiological evaluation of patients under prosthetic treatment in order to establish the algorithm for rehabilitation. The study group was composed of the patients after midface surgery (45.74%); surgery in a lower part of the face (47.38%); mixed postoperative losses (3.44%); loss of face tissues and surgery in other locations in the head and neck region (3.44%). The supplementary treatment was applied in 69.63% of patients. Clinical and additional examinations were performed to obtain the picture of postoperative loss, its magnitude, and location to plan the strategy of prosthetic rehabilitation. The management algorithm for prosthetic rehabilitation in patients after surgical treatment of maxillofacial neoplasms was based on its division in stages. The location and magnitude of postoperative losses, as well as the implementation of supplementary treatment of the patients after treatment of maxillofacial tumors, influence the planning of prosthetic rehabilitation that plays a key role and facilitates the patients’ return to their prior living situation, occupational and family lives. D. Rolski, J. Kostrzewa-Janicka, P. Zawadzki, K. Życińska, and E. Mierzwińska-Nastalska Copyright © 2016 D. Rolski et al. All rights reserved. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber Mon, 26 Sep 2016 14:27:53 +0000 This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs) and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs) to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1) and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pyrenees®) activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2). Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens) than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed). These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching. Akiko Haruyama, Atsushi Kameyama, Junji Kato, Shinji Takemoto, Yutaka Oda, Eiji Kawada, Toshiyuki Takahashi, and Masahiro Furusawa Copyright © 2016 Akiko Haruyama et al. All rights reserved. The Alteration of the Epidermal Basement Membrane Complex of Human Nevus Tissue and Keratinocyte Attachment after High Hydrostatic Pressurization Mon, 26 Sep 2016 14:09:57 +0000 We previously reported that human nevus tissue was inactivated after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) higher than 200 MPa and that human cultured epidermis (hCE) engrafted on the pressurized nevus at 200 MPa but not at 1000 MPa. In this study, we explore the changes to the epidermal basement membrane in detail and elucidate the cause of the difference in hCE engraftment. Nevus specimens of 8 mm in diameter were divided into five groups (control and 100, 200, 500, and 1000 MPa). Immediately after HHP, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the presence of laminin-332 and type VII collagen, and the specimens were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). hCE was placed on the pressurized nevus specimens in the 200, 500, and 1000 MPa groups and implanted into the subcutis of nude mice; the specimens were harvested at 14 days after implantation. Then, human keratinocytes were seeded on the pressurized nevus and the attachment was evaluated. The immunohistochemical staining results revealed that the control and 100 MPa, 200 MPa, and 500 MPa groups were positive for type VII collagen and laminin-332 immediately after HHP. TEM showed that, in all of the groups, the lamina densa existed; however, anchoring fibrils were not clearly observed in the 500 or 1000 MPa groups. Although the hCE took in the 200 and 500 MPa groups, keratinocyte attachment was only confirmed in the 200 MPa group. This result indicates that HHP at 200 MPa is preferable for inactivating nevus tissue to allow its reuse for skin reconstruction in the clinical setting. Naoki Morimoto, Chizuru Jinno, Atsushi Mahara, Michiharu Sakamoto, Natsuko Kakudo, Masukazu Inoie, Toshia Fujisato, Shigehiko Suzuki, Kenji Kusumoto, and Tetsuji Yamaoka Copyright © 2016 Naoki Morimoto et al. All rights reserved. An Ash1-Like Protein MoKMT2H Null Mutant Is Delayed for Conidium Germination and Pathogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae Mon, 26 Sep 2016 13:49:09 +0000 Ash1 is a known H3K36-specific histone demethylase that is required for normal Hox gene expression and fertility in Drosophila and mammals. However, little is known about the expression and function of the fungal ortholog of Ash1 in phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here we report that MoKMT2H, an Ash1-like protein, is required for conidium germination and virulence in rice. We obtained MoKMT2H null mutant (MoKMT2H) using a target gene replacement strategy. In the MoKMT2H null mutants, global histone methyltransferase modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H3K36me2/3) of the genome were unaffected. The MoKMT2H mutants showed no defect in vegetative hyphal growth, conidium morphology, conidiation, or disease lesion formation on rice leaves. However, the MoKMT2H deletion mutants were delayed for conidium germination and consequently had decreased virulence. Taken together, our results indicated that MoKMT2H plays an important role in conidium germination during appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus and perhaps other pathogenic plant fungi. Zhaojun Cao, Yue Yin, Xuan Sun, Jun Han, Qing peng Sun, Min Lu, Jinbao Pan, and Weixiang Wang Copyright © 2016 Zhaojun Cao et al. All rights reserved. Parallel-SymD: A Parallel Approach to Detect Internal Symmetry in Protein Domains Mon, 26 Sep 2016 13:02:15 +0000 Internally symmetric proteins are proteins that have a symmetrical structure in their monomeric single-chain form. Around 10–15% of the protein domains can be regarded as having some sort of internal symmetry. In this regard, we previously published SymD (symmetry detection), an algorithm that determines whether a given protein structure has internal symmetry by attempting to align the protein to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible numbers of residues. SymD has proven to be a useful algorithm to detect symmetry. In this paper, we present a new parallelized algorithm called Parallel-SymD for detecting symmetry of proteins on clusters of computers. The achieved speedup of the new Parallel-SymD algorithm scales well with the number of computing processors. Scaling is better for proteins with a larger number of residues. For a protein of 509 residues, a speedup of 63 was achieved on a parallel system with 100 processors. Ashwani Jha, K. M. Flurchick, Marwan Bikdash, and Dukka B. KC Copyright © 2016 Ashwani Jha et al. All rights reserved. Inhalation Conscious Sedation with Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen as Alternative to General Anesthesia in Precooperative, Fearful, and Disabled Pediatric Dental Patients: A Large Survey on 688 Working Sessions Mon, 26 Sep 2016 12:07:03 +0000 Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness and the tolerability of the nitrous oxide sedation for dental treatment on a large pediatric sample constituting precooperative, fearful, and disabled patients. Methods. 472 noncooperating patients (aged 4 to 17) were treated under conscious sedation. The following data were calculated: average age; gender distribution; success/failure; adverse effects; number of treatments; kind of dental procedure undertaken; number of dental procedures for each working session; number of working sessions for each patient; differences between males and females and between healthy and disabled patients in relation to success; success in relation to age; and level of cooperation using Venham score. Results. 688 conscious sedations were carried out. The success was 86.3%. Adverse effects occurred in 2.5%. 1317 dental procedures were performed. In relation to the success, there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and disabled patients. Sex and age were not significant factors for the success. Venham score was higher at the first contact with the dentist than during the treatment. Conclusions. Inhalation conscious sedation represented an effective and safe method to obtain cooperation, even in very young patients, and it could reduce the number of pediatric patients referred to hospitals for general anesthesia. Angela Galeotti, Annelyse Garret Bernardin, Vincenzo D’Antò, Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano, Tina Gentile, Valeria Viarani, Giorgio Cassabgi, and Tiziana Cantile Copyright © 2016 Angela Galeotti et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of File Size and Type and Irrigation Solutions on the Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study on Canine Teeth Mon, 26 Sep 2016 10:59:57 +0000 Measurements of the root canal during endodontic treatment have a significant influence on the course of the therapeutic process as well as on its final result in both human and veterinary medicine. The apical constriction should be the termination point for the preparation and filling of the root canal. This research was conducted with the use of a Septodont kit consisting of a small chamber filled with the examined solution in which a healthy second incisor was placed. The step back method was applied for the root canal preparation and master apical file of 30 was used. The working length was 22 mm. The examination was conducted with the use of steel as well as nickel titanium hand instruments. Different irrigation solutions and two types of apex locators were used. Measurements of the working length of the root canal showed dependence on the size of the instrument. Examinations carried out in various environments showed that analogical measurements were obtained only for sodium hypochlorite solutions. In other environments the measured sections were shortened. Comparative examinations with the use of steel instruments demonstrated insignificant measurement differences. Compared to these results, the measurements in nickel titanium group were characterized by more considerable deviations. Maciej Janeczek, Piotr Kosior, Dagmara Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Krzysztof Dudek, Aleksander Chrószcz, Agnieszka Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Małgorzata Kowalczyk-Zając, Aleksandra Gabren-Syller, Karol Kirstein, Aleksandra Skalec, Ewelina Bryła, and Maciej Dobrzyński Copyright © 2016 Maciej Janeczek et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Prophylactic Antifungal Protocols on the Prognosis of Liver Transplantation: A Propensity Score Matching and Multistate Model Approach Mon, 26 Sep 2016 06:47:05 +0000 Background. Whether routine antifungal prophylaxis decreases posttransplantation fungal infections in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis for patients receiving OLT. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of a database at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We have been administering routine antibiotic and prophylactic antifungal regimens to recipients with high model for end-stage liver disease scores (>20) since 2009. After propensity score matching, 402 patients were enrolled. We conducted a multistate model to analyze the cumulative hazards, probability of fungal infections, and risk factors. Results. The cumulative hazards and transition probability of “transplantation to fungal infection” were lower in the prophylaxis group. The incidence rate of fungal infection after OLT decreased from 18.9% to 11.4% (); overall mortality improved from 40.8% to 23.4% (). In the “transplantation to fungal infection” transition, prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced hazards for fungal infection (hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.34–0.96, ). Massive ascites, cadaver transplantation, and older age were significantly associated with higher risks for mortality. Conclusion. Prophylactic antifungal regimens in high-risk recipients might decrease the incidence of posttransplant fungal infections. Yi-Chan Chen, Ting-Shuo Huang, Yu-Chao Wang, Chih-Hsien Cheng, Chen-Fang Lee, Ting-Jun Wu, Hong-Shiue Chou, Kun-Ming Chan, Wei-Chen Lee, and Ruey-Shyang Soong Copyright © 2016 Yi-Chan Chen et al. All rights reserved.