BioMed Research International: Anatomy The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The 3D Tele Motion Tracking for the Orthodontic Facial Analysis Thu, 01 Dec 2016 09:26:27 +0000 Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of 3D-TMT, previously used only for dynamic testing, in a static cephalometric evaluation. Material and Method. A group of 40 patients (20 males and 20 females; mean age years; 12–18 years old) was included in the study. The measurements obtained by the 3D-TMT cephalometric analysis with a conventional frontal cephalometric analysis were compared for each subject. Nine passive markers reflectors were positioned on the face skin for the detection of the profile of the patient. Through the acquisition of these points, corresponding plans for three-dimensional posterior-anterior cephalometric analysis were found. Results. The cephalometric results carried out with 3D-TMT and with traditional posterior-anterior cephalometric analysis showed the 3D-TMT system values are slightly higher than the values measured on radiographs but statistically significant; nevertheless their correlation is very high. Conclusion. The recorded values obtained using the 3D-TMT analysis were correlated to cephalometric analysis, with small but statistically significant differences. The Dahlberg errors resulted to be always lower than the mean difference between the 2D and 3D measurements. A clinician should use, during the clinical monitoring of a patient, always the same method, to avoid comparing different millimeter magnitudes. Stefano Mummolo, Alessandro Nota, Enrico Marchetti, Giuseppe Padricelli, and Giuseppe Marzo Copyright © 2016 Stefano Mummolo et al. All rights reserved. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study Tue, 22 Nov 2016 10:30:55 +0000 The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age ( coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. Giuseppe Perinetti, Luigi Rosso, Riccardo Riatti, and Luca Contardo Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Perinetti et al. All rights reserved. The Epidemiological, Morphological, and Clinical Aspects of the Cervical Ribs in Humans Tue, 15 Nov 2016 08:38:17 +0000 A familiarity with the anatomy of some types of bone anomalies is necessary for clinicians involved in many medical areas. The aim of this paper is to review the newest literature concerning the morphology, embryology, clinical image, and therapeutic methods of the cervical ribs in the humans. The incidence of cervical ribs has been found to vary from 0.58% in Malaysian population to 6.2% in Turkish population. Cervical ribs have clinical implications that are generally divided into neurological or vascular. This study is of particular importance for clinicians, as early identification of cervical ribs may prevent life-threatening complications. Łukasz Spadliński, Tomasz Cecot, Agata Majos, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Wioletta Pietruszewska, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Mirosław Topol, and Michał Polguj Copyright © 2016 Łukasz Spadliński et al. All rights reserved. Structural Comparison between the Right and Left Atrial Appendages Using Multidetector Computed Tomography Wed, 09 Nov 2016 11:34:28 +0000 The three-dimensional (3D) structures of the right atrial appendage (RAA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) were compared to clarify why thrombus formation less frequently occurs in RAA than in LAA. Morphological differences between RAA and LAA of 34 formalin-preserved cadaver hearts were investigated. Molds of RAA and LAA specimens were made and the neck areas, volumes of the atrial appendages (AA), and amount of pectinate muscles (PMs) were analyzed using multidetector computed tomography. In RAA, most PMs were connected to one another and formed a “dendritic” appearance and the inner surface area was smaller than in LAA. RAA had smaller volumes and larger neck areas than LAA. The ratios of the neck area/volume were larger and the amounts of PMs were smaller in RAA than in LAA. The volumes, neck areas, and amount of PMs of RAA were significantly correlated with those of LAA. According to the 3D structure, RAA appears to be suited for a more favorable blood flow, which may explain why the thrombus formation is less common in RAA than in LAA. Examining not only LAA but also RAA by transesophageal echocardiography may be useful in high-risk patients of thrombus formation in LAA because the volume, neck area, and amount of PMs of LAA reflect the shape of RAA. Koichi Shinoda, Shogo Hayashi, Daisuke Fukuoka, Ryo Torii, Tsuneo Watanabe, and Takashi Nakano Copyright © 2016 Koichi Shinoda et al. All rights reserved. Size and Proportions of Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers in Human Costal Diaphragm Mon, 07 Nov 2016 11:59:59 +0000 Smaller diaphragmatic motor unit potentials (MUPs) compared to MUPs of limb muscles lead to the hypothesis that diaphragmatic muscle fibers, being the generators of MUPs, might be also smaller. We compared autopsy samples of costal diaphragm and vastus lateralis of healthy men with respect to fibers’ size and expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC-1) and fast 2A isoform (MyHC-2A). Diaphragmatic fibers were smaller than fibers in vastus lateralis with regard to the mean minimal fiber diameter of slow-twitch (46.8 versus 72.2 μm, ), fast-twitch (45.1 versus 62.4 μm, ), and hybrid fibers (47.3 versus 65.0 μm, ) as well as to the mean fiber cross-sectional areas of slow-twitch (2376.0 versus 5455.9 μm2, ), fast-twitch (2258.7 versus 4189.7 μm2, ), and hybrid fibers (2404.4 versus 4776.3 μm2, ). The numerical proportion of slow-twitch fibers was higher (50.2 versus 36.3%, ) in costal diaphragm and the numerical proportion of fast-twitch fibers (47.2 versus 58.7%, ) was lower. The numerical proportion of hybrid fibers did not differ. Muscle fibers of costal diaphragm have specific characteristics which support increased resistance of diaphragm to fatigue. Marija Meznaric and Erika Cvetko Copyright © 2016 Marija Meznaric and Erika Cvetko. All rights reserved. Sacro-Iliac Joint Sensory Block and Radiofrequency Ablation: Assessment of Bony Landmarks Relevant for Image-Guided Procedures Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:08:38 +0000 Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1–S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks. The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the interrelationships of the transverse sacral tubercles and posterior sacral foramina to inform image-guided block and radiofrequency ablation of the sacro-iliac joint. The posterior and lateral surfaces of 30 dry sacra (15 M/15 F) were digitized and modeled in 3D and the distances between bony landmarks quantified. The relationships of bony landmarks (S1–S4) were not uniform. The mean intertubercular and interforaminal distances decreased from S1 to S4, whereas the distance from the lateral margin of the posterior sacral foramina to the transverse sacral tubercles increased from S1 to S3. The mean intertubercular distance from S1 to S3 was significantly () larger in males. The interrelationships of the sacral bony landmarks should be taken into consideration when estimating the site and length of an image-guided strip lesion targeting the posterior sacral network. Trevor J. G. Robinson, Shannon L. Roberts, Robert S. Burnham, Eldon Loh, and Anne M. Agur Copyright © 2016 Trevor J. G. Robinson et al. All rights reserved. Styloid Process of the Temporal Bone: Morphometric Analysis and Clinical Implications Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:43:43 +0000 Objective. To evaluate measures of the styloid process (SP) in Brazilian dry skulls. Methods. This study involves measurements of two points (lateral end posterior views) of 15 dry skulls held by the Morphology Department, Institute of Biological Sciences of Federal University of Minas Gerais. Results. There was a large variability for the length of left and right sides (in lateral and posterior views) of the styloid process. From the lateral view of the left and right styloid, the length of the SP ranged, respectively, from 10.22 mm to 69.73 mm and from 8.30 mm to 63.77 mm. From a posterior view of the left and right sides of the skulls, the values range, respectively, from 15.57 mm to 69.51 mm and from 15.64 mm to 69.44 mm. Conclusion. We believe that this study provides additional information about the frequency of elongated SP among the Brazilian population. Antonio Luis Neto Custodio, Micena Roberta Miranda Alves e Silva, Mauro Henrique Abreu, Lucas Rodarte Abreu Araújo, and Leandro Junqueira de Oliveira Copyright © 2016 Antonio Luis Neto Custodio et al. All rights reserved. The Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates Contextual Associative Memory: Evidence from an fMRI Study Mon, 09 May 2016 12:12:46 +0000 The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) plays a key role in episodic memory, spatial processing, and the encoding of novel stimuli. Recent studies proposed that the PHC is largely involved in contextual associative processing. Consequently, the function of this region has been a hot debate in cognitive neuroscience. To test this assumption, we used two types of experimental materials to form the contextual associative memory: visual objects in reality and meaningless visual shapes. New associations were modeled from either the contextual objects or the contextual shapes. Both contextual objects and shapes activated the bilateral PHC more than the noncontextual ones. The contextual objects with semantics significantly activated the left PHC areas, whereas the meaningless contextual shapes significantly elicited the right PHC. The results clearly demonstrate that the PHC influences the processing of contextual information and provides experimental evidence for an understanding of the different functions of bilateral PHC in contextual associative memory. Mi Li, Shengfu Lu, and Ning Zhong Copyright © 2016 Mi Li et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Study of the Clavicles in a Chinese Population Mon, 21 Mar 2016 13:20:41 +0000 Background. A reemergence of interest in clavicle anatomy was prompted because of the advocacy for operative treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures. Several anatomical studies of the clavicle have been performed in western population. However, there was no anatomical study of clavicle in Chinese population. Patients and Methods. 52 patients were included in the present study. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the clavicles were generated. The length of the clavicle, the widths and thicknesses of the clavicle, curvatures of the clavicle, the areas of the intramedullary canal, and sectional areas of the clavicle were measured. All the measurements were compared between genders and two sides. Results. The mean length of the clavicles was  mm. Clavicles in males were longer, wider, and thicker than in females; also males have different curvatures in both planes compared with females. The men’s intramedullary canals and sectional areas of the clavicle were larger than those of women. No significant difference between the sides was found for all the measurements. Conclusion. This study provided an anatomical data of the clavicle in a Chinese population. These clavicle dimensions can be applied to the modifications of the contemporary clavicle plate or a new development for the Chinese population. Xu-sheng Qiu, Xiao-bo Wang, Yan Zhang, Yan-Cheng Zhu, Xia Guo, and Yi-xin Chen Copyright © 2016 Xu-sheng Qiu et al. All rights reserved. Neural-Dural Transition at the Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Nerve Roots: A Histological Study of Human Late-Stage Fetuses Wed, 16 Mar 2016 12:55:10 +0000 Epidural blocks have been used extensively in infants. However, little histological information is available on the immature neural-dural transition. The neural-dural transition was histologically investigated in 12 late-stage (28–30 weeks) fetuses. The dural sheath of the spinal cord was observed to always continue along the nerve roots with varying thicknesses between specimens and segments, while the dorsal root ganglion sheath was usually very thin or unclear. Immature neural-dural transitions were associated with effective anesthesia. The posterior radicular artery was near the dorsal root ganglion and/or embedded in the nerve root, whereas the anterior radicular artery was separated from the nearest nerve root. The anterior radicular artery was not associated with the dural sheath but with thin mesenchymal tissue. The numbers of radicular arteries tended to become smaller in larger specimens. Likewise, larger specimens of the upper thoracic and lower lumbar segments did not show the artery. Therefore, elimination of the radicular arteries to form a single artery of Adamkiewicz was occurring in late-stage fetuses. The epidural space was filled with veins, and the loose tissue space extended ventrolaterally to the subpleural tissue between the ribs. Consequently, epidural blocks in infants require special attention although immature neural-dural transitions seemed to increase the effect. Kwang Ho Cho, Zhe Wu Jin, Hiroshi Abe, Shunichi Shibata, Gen Murakami, and Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez Copyright © 2016 Kwang Ho Cho et al. All rights reserved. A New Measurement Technique of the Characteristics of Nutrient Artery Canals in Tibias Using Materialise’s Interactive Medical Image Control System Software Tue, 15 Dec 2015 13:06:01 +0000 We established a novel measurement technique to evaluate the anatomic information of nutrient artery canals using Mimics (Materialise’s Interactive Medical Image Control System) software, which will provide full knowledge of nutrient artery canals to assist in the diagnosis of longitudinal fractures of tibia and choosing an optimal therapy. Here we collected Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format of 199 patients hospitalized in our hospital. All three-dimensional models of tibia in Mimics were reconstructed. In 3-matic software, we marked five points in tibia which located at intercondylar eminence, tibia tuberosity, outer ostium, inner ostium, and bottom of medial malleolus. We then recorded -coordinates values of the five points and performed statistical analysis. Our results indicate that foramen was found to be absent in 9 (2.3%) tibias, and 379 (95.2%) tibias had single nutrient foramen. The double foramina was observed in 10 (2.5%) tibias. The mean of tibia length was 358 ± 22 mm. The mean foraminal index was 31.8%  ± 3%. The mean distance between tibial tuberosity and foramen (TFD) is 66 ± 12 mm. Foraminal index has significant positive correlation with TFD ( = 0.721, < 0.01). Length of nutrient artery canals has significant negative correlation with TFD ( = −0.340, < 0.01) and has significant negative correlation with foraminal index (, ). Jiantao Li, Hao Zhang, Peng Yin, Xiuyun Su, Zhe Zhao, Jianfeng Zhou, Chen Li, Zhirui Li, Lihai Zhang, and Peifu Tang Copyright © 2015 Jiantao Li et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Study of Intrahemispheric Association Fibers in the Brains of Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus sp.) Sun, 29 Nov 2015 08:01:07 +0000 Previous studies suggest that the complexity of fiber connections in the brain plays a key role in the evolutionary process of the primate brain and behaviors. The patterns of brain fiber systems have been studied in detail in many nonhuman primates, but not in Sapajus sp. Behavioral studies indicated that Sapajus sp. (bearded capuchins) show highly cognitive behaviors such as tool use comparable to those in other nonhuman primates. To compare the brain fiber systems in capuchins with those in other nonhuman primates and humans, the intrahemispheric fibers systems in 24 cerebral hemispheres of Sapajus were dissected by a freezing-thawing procedure. Dissection of the hemispheres in lateral view indicated short arcuate fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, while that in a medial view indicated short arcuate fibers, the cingulum united with the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The results showed that the fiber systems in Sapajus are comparable to those in rhesus and humans, except for a lack of independent superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum in Sapajus. Kellen Christina Malheiros Borges, Hisao Nishijo, Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira, Jussara Rocha Ferreira, and Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta Copyright © 2015 Kellen Christina Malheiros Borges et al. All rights reserved. The Ultrasonic Microsurgical Anatomical Comparative Study of the CHD Fetuses and Their Clinical Significance Tue, 10 Nov 2015 11:51:06 +0000 The aim of our study was to increase the detection rate of fetal cardiac malformations for congenital heart disease (CHD). The ultrasonic and microanatomical methods were combined to study the CHD cases firstly, which could provide the microsurgical anatomical basis to the prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis which was used in suspected CHD and help the sonographer to improve the quality of fetal cardiac diagnosis. We established the ultrasonic standard section of the 175 complex CHD cases and collected the fetal echocardiography image files. The induced/aborted fetuses were fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde and dissected by the ultrasonic microsurgical anatomy. This research could obtain the fetal cardiac anatomic cross-sectional images which was consistent with the ultrasonic standard section and could clearly show the internal structure of the vascular malformation that optimized the ultrasound examination individually. This method could directly display the variation of the CHD fetal heart clearly and comprehensively help us to understand the complex fetal cardiac malformation from the internal structure of the vascular malformation which was consolidated by the anatomical basis of the fetal heart. This study could improve the integrity and accuracy of the prenatal cardiac ultrasound examination tremendously. Xiaosong Li, Hongmei Xia, Dan Wang, Junke Zhu, and Jianhua Ran Copyright © 2015 Xiaosong Li et al. All rights reserved. The Roles of Hedgehog Signaling in Upper Lip Formation Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:37:11 +0000 Craniofacial development consists of a highly complex sequence of the orchestrated growth and fusion of facial processes. It is also known that craniofacial abnormalities can be detected in 1/3 of all patients with congenital diseases. Within the various craniofacial abnormalities, orofacial clefting is one of the most common phenotypic outcomes associated with retarded facial growth or fusion. Cleft lip is one of the representative and frequently encountered conditions in the spectrum of orofacial clefting. Despite various mechanisms or signaling pathways that have been proposed to be the cause of cleft lip, a detailed mechanism that bridges individual signaling pathways to the cleft lip is still elusive. Shh signaling is indispensable for normal embryonic development, and disruption can result in a wide spectrum of craniofacial disorders, including cleft lip. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the mechanisms of facial development and the etiology of cleft lip that are related to Shh signaling. Hiroshi Kurosaka Copyright © 2015 Hiroshi Kurosaka. All rights reserved. Quantitative Anatomical Studies Mon, 31 Aug 2015 06:10:36 +0000 Ilker Ercan, Levent Sarikcioglu, Heather F. Smith, Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno, Tuncay Peker, and Gulsum Ozyigit Copyright © 2015 Ilker Ercan et al. All rights reserved. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery Sun, 30 Aug 2015 08:26:37 +0000 Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) chart, Moving Average (MA) chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision. Leman Tomak, Yuksel Bek, and Yılmaz Tomak Copyright © 2015 Leman Tomak et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:06:42 +0000 Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD) test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level. Ahmet Sezer, Lale Altan, and Özer Özdemir Copyright © 2015 Ahmet Sezer et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:05:38 +0000 Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan Copyright © 2015 Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:45:44 +0000 Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD) of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6); 0.4 (1.2); 0.2 (0.6) mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9); −1.5 (3.3); 1.0 (3.7)°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available. Paul W. L. ten Berg, Johannes G. G. Dobbe, Simon D. Strackee, and Geert J. Streekstra Copyright © 2015 Paul W. L. ten Berg et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:41:40 +0000 The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5–18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13–18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites. Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith Copyright © 2015 Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith. All rights reserved. Using Magnetic Resonance for Predicting Femoral Strength: Added Value with respect to Bone Densitometry Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:19 +0000 Background and Purpose. To evaluate the added value of MRI with respect to peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for predicting femoral strength. Material and Methods. Bone mineral density (BMD) of eighteen femur specimens was assessed with pQCT, DXA, and MRI (using ultrashort echo times (UTE) and the MicroView software). Subsequently biomechanical testing was performed to assess failure load. Simple and multiple linear regression were used with failure load as the dependent variable. Results. Simple linear regression allowed a prediction of failure load with either pQCT, DXA, or MRI in an range of 0.41–0.48. Multiple linear regression with pQCT, DXA, and MRI yielded the best prediction (). Conclusions. The accuracy of MRI, using UTE and MicroView software, to predict femoral strength compares well with that of pQCT or DXA. Furthermore, the inclusion of MRI in a multiple-regression model yields the best prediction. Olivia Louis, Yves Fierens, Maria Strantza, Robert Luypaert, Johan de Mey, and Erik Cattrysse Copyright © 2015 Olivia Louis et al. All rights reserved. Reexamination of Statistical Methods for Comparative Anatomy: Examples of Its Application and Comparisons with Other Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:22:51 +0000 Various statistical methods have been published for comparative anatomy. However, few studies compared parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Moreover, some previous studies using statistical method for comparative anatomy (SMCA) proposed the formula for comparison of groups of anatomical structures (multiple structures) among different species. The present paper described the usage of SMCA and compared the results by SMCA with those by parametric test (t-test) and nonparametric analyses (cladistics) of anatomical data. In conclusion, the SMCA can offer a more exact and precise way to compare single and multiple anatomical structures across different species, which requires analyses of nominal features in comparative anatomy. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Hisao Nishijo, and Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2015 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Association of Aortic Diameters with Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Albumin Excretion Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:21:30 +0000 Introduction. Aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, microalbuminuria, coronary artery disease which are all together related to vascular aging are investigated in this paper. Methods. Eighty consecutive nondiabetic patients undergoing elective coronary angiography were enrolled into the study. Systolic and diastolic aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, CAD severity by angiogram with the use of Gensini scoring, and albumin excretion rates were determined. Results. Cases with CAD had significantly larger systolic (30,72 ± 3,21 mm versus 34,19 ± 4,03 mm for cases without and with CAD, resp.) and diastolic aortic diameters measured 3 cm above aortic valve compared to patients without CAD (33,56 ± 4,07 mm versus 29,75 ± 3,12 mm). The systolic and diastolic diameters were significantly higher in albuminuria positive patients compared to albuminuria negative patients (p = 0.017 and 0.008, resp., for systolic and diastolic diameters). Conclusion. In conclusion aortic diameters are increased in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with microalbuminuria. In CAD patients, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure, and albumin excretion rate were higher and aortic distensibility was lower. Bülent Özdemir, Ali Emül, Levent Özdemir, Saim Sağ, Murat Biçer, and Ali Aydınlar Copyright © 2015 Bülent Özdemir et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Tooth Segmentation of Dental Mesh Based on Harmonic Fields Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:08:22 +0000 An important preprocess in computer-aided orthodontics is to segment teeth from the dental models accurately, which should involve manual interactions as few as possible. But fully automatic partition of all teeth is not a trivial task, since teeth occur in different shapes and their arrangements vary substantially from one individual to another. The difficulty is exacerbated when severe teeth malocclusion and crowding problems occur, which is a common occurrence in clinical cases. Most published methods in this area either are inaccurate or require lots of manual interactions. Motivated by the state-of-the-art general mesh segmentation methods that adopted the theory of harmonic field to detect partition boundaries, this paper proposes a novel, dental-targeted segmentation framework for dental meshes. With a specially designed weighting scheme and a strategy of a priori knowledge to guide the assignment of harmonic constraints, this method can identify teeth partition boundaries effectively. Extensive experiments and quantitative analysis demonstrate that the proposed method is able to partition high-quality teeth automatically with robustness and efficiency. Sheng-hui Liao, Shi-jian Liu, Bei-ji Zou, Xi Ding, Ye Liang, and Jun-hui Huang Copyright © 2015 Sheng-hui Liao et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:50:16 +0000 Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. Jae-Woong Kim, Jiye Choi, Janggeun Cho, Chulhyun Lee, Daejong Jeon, and Sung-Hong Park Copyright © 2015 Jae-Woong Kim et al. All rights reserved. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:39:41 +0000 Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 age ± Z   (−3.15 + 0.27 age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 liver length liver transverse diameter liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (, ) between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 liver length liver transverse diameter liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. Michał Szpinda, Monika Paruszewska-Achtel, Alina Woźniak, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Małgorzata Dombek, Anna Szpinda, and Mateusz Badura Copyright © 2015 Michał Szpinda et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Evaluation of Korean Femurs by Geometric Computation: Comparisons of the Sex and the Population Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:37:27 +0000 We measured 28 parameters of 202 femurs from Koreans by an automated geometric computation program using 3D models generated from computed tomography images. The measurement parameters were selected with reference to physical and forensic anthropology studies as well as orthopedic implant design studies. All measurements were calculated using 3D reconstructions on a computer using scientific computation language. We also analyzed sex and population differences by comparison with data from previous studies. Most parameters were larger in males than in females. The height, head diameter, head center offset, and chord length of the diaphysis, most parameters in the distal femur, and the isthmic width of the medullary canal were smaller in Koreans than in other populations. However, the neck-shaft angle, subtense, and width of the intercondylar notch in the distal femur were larger than those in other populations. The results of this study will be useful as a reference for physical and forensic anthropology as well as the design of medical devices suitable for Koreans. Ho-Jung Cho, Dai-Soon Kwak, and In-Beom Kim Copyright © 2015 Ho-Jung Cho et al. All rights reserved. Change in the Pathologic Supraspinatus: A Three-Dimensional Model of Fiber Bundle Architecture within Anterior and Posterior Regions Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:37:18 +0000 Supraspinatus tendon tears are common and lead to changes in the muscle architecture. To date, these changes have not been investigated for the distinct regions and parts of the pathologic supraspinatus. The purpose of this study was to create a novel three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscle architecture throughout the supraspinatus and to compare the architecture between muscle regions and parts in relation to tear severity. Twelve cadaveric specimens with varying degrees of tendon tears were used. Three-dimensional coordinates of fiber bundles were collected in situ using serial dissection and digitization. Data were reconstructed and modeled in 3D using Maya. Fiber bundle length (FBL) and pennation angle (PA) were computed and analyzed. FBL was significantly shorter in specimens with large retracted tears compared to smaller tears, with the deeper fibers being significantly shorter than other parts in the anterior region. PA was significantly greater in specimens with large retracted tears, with the superficial fibers often demonstrating the largest PA. The posterior region was absent in two specimens with extensive tears. Architectural changes associated with tendon tears affect the regions and varying depths of supraspinatus differently. The results provide important insights on residual function of the pathologic muscle, and the 3D model includes detailed data that can be used in future modeling studies. Soo Y. Kim, Rohit Sachdeva, Zi Li, Dongwoon Lee, and Benjamin W. C. Rosser Copyright © 2015 Soo Y. Kim et al. All rights reserved. How to Quantify Penile Corpus Cavernosum Structures with Histomorphometry: Comparison of Two Methods Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:27:56 +0000 The use of morphometrical tools in biomedical research permits the accurate comparison of specimens subjected to different conditions, and the surface density of structures is commonly used for this purpose. The traditional point-counting method is reliable but time-consuming, with computer-aided methods being proposed as an alternative. The aim of this study was to compare the surface density data of penile corpus cavernosum trabecular smooth muscle in different groups of rats, measured by two observers using the point-counting or color-based segmentation method. Ten normotensive and 10 hypertensive male rats were used in this study. Rat penises were processed to obtain smooth muscle immunostained histological slices and photomicrographs captured for analysis. The smooth muscle surface density was measured in both groups by two different observers by the point-counting method and by the color-based segmentation method. Hypertensive rats showed an increase in smooth muscle surface density by the two methods, and no difference was found between the results of the two observers. However, surface density values were higher by the point-counting method. The use of either method did not influence the final interpretation of the results, and both proved to have adequate reproducibility. However, as differences were found between the two methods, results obtained by either method should not be compared. Bruno Felix-Patrício, Diogo Benchimol De Souza, Bianca Martins Gregório, Waldemar Silva Costa, and Francisco José Sampaio Copyright © 2015 Bruno Felix-Patrício et al. All rights reserved. Dentin Morphology of Root Canal Surface: A Quantitative Evaluation Based on a Scanning Electronic Microscopy Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:27:34 +0000 Dentin is a vital, hydrated composite tissue with structural components and properties that vary in the different topographic portions of the teeth. These variations have a significant implication for biomechanical teeth properties and for the adhesive systems utilized in conservative dentistry. The aim of this study is to analyse the root canal dentin going from coronal to apical zone to find the ratio between the intertubular dentin area and the surface occupied by dentin tubules varies. Observations were conducted on 30 healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons in patients aged between 10 and 14. A SEM analysis of the data obtained in different canal portions showed that, in the coronal zone, dentinal tubules had a greater diameter (4.32 μm) than the middle zone (3.74 μm) and the apical zone (1.73 μm). The average number of dentinal tubules (in an area of 1 mm2) was similar in coronal zone () and apical zone (), while in the middle zone they were lower in number (). However, intertubular dentin area was bigger going from apical to coronal portion. The differences between the analysed areas must be considered for the choice of the adhesive system. Giuseppe Lo Giudice, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Antonio Centofanti, Alessandro Artemisia, Ennio Bramanti, Angela Militi, Giuseppina Rizzo, Angelo Favaloro, Alessia Irrera, Roberto Lo Giudice, and Marco Cicciù Copyright © 2015 Giuseppe Lo Giudice et al. All rights reserved. Functional and Structural Details about the Fabella: What the Important Stabilizer Looks Like in the Central European Population Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:25:42 +0000 The posterolateral corner of the knee accommodating the fabella complex is of importance in orthopaedic surgery. Unfortunately, there is a lack of data in literature for clinical routine. Therefore, we investigated the fabella’s characteristics, biomechanical nature, and present histologic details. Of special interest were the fabella’s occurrence and position, calcium concentration as long-term load intake indicator, and the histology. Within our analysis, fabellae were found in 30.0% of all datasets, located on the upper part of the posterolateral femoral condyle. The region of fabella contact on this condyle showed a significantly lower calcium concentration than its surroundings. Histologically, the fabella showed no articular cartilage but a clearly distinguishable fabellofibular ligament that consisted of two bundles: one, as already described in literature inserted at the fibular tip, and another part newly described on the top of the lateral meniscus. In its role of stabilizing the soft tissue structures of the posterolateral knee, the fabella seems to serve as suspension for the ligaments evolving from its base. Even though a joint formation of any kind is unlikely, the presence of a fabella needs to be kept in mind during knee examination and any surgical procedures. Nicole Helene Hauser, Sebastian Hoechel, Mireille Toranelli, Joerg Klaws, and Magdalena Müller-Gerbl Copyright © 2015 Nicole Helene Hauser et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:22:01 +0000 Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged and for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from to and from to , respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from to in the right lung, and from to in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. Michał Szpinda, Waldemar Siedlaczek, Anna Szpinda, Alina Woźniak, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, and Mateusz Badura Copyright © 2015 Michał Szpinda et al. All rights reserved. Dental Pulp: Correspondences and Contradictions between Clinical and Histological Diagnosis Mon, 11 May 2015 08:23:54 +0000 Dental pulp represents a specialized connective tissue enclosed by dentin and enamel, the most highly mineralized tissues of the body. Consequently, the direct examination as well as pathological evaluation of dental pulp is difficult. Within this anatomical context, our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between dental pulp lesions and clinical diagnosis. Pulpectomies were performed for 54 patients with acute and chronic irreversible pulpitides and for 5 patients (control group) with orthodontic extractions. The morphological features were semiquantitatively assessed by specific score values. The clinical and morphological correspondence was noted for 35 cases (68.62%), whereas inconsistency was recorded for 16 cases (31.38%). The results of the statistical analysis revealed the correlations between clinically and pathologically diagnosed acute/chronic pulpitides. No significant differences were established between the score values for inflammatory infiltrate intensity, collagen depositions, calcifications and necrosis, and acute, respectively chronic pulpitides. We also obtained significant differences between acute pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate and calcifications and between chronic pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition, and calcifications. On the basis of the predominant pathological aspects, namely, acute and chronic pulpitis, we consider that the classification schemes can be simplified by adequately reducing the number of clinical entities. Cristian Levente Giuroiu, Irina-Draga Căruntu, Ludmila Lozneanu, Anca Melian, Maria Vataman, and Sorin Andrian Copyright © 2015 Cristian Levente Giuroiu et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Study of the Lingula in Adult Human Mandibles of Brazilians Individuals and Clinical Implications Mon, 02 Mar 2015 09:08:13 +0000 Objectives. The purpose of this research was to study, in macerated adult human mandibles, the height of the lingula and provide morphometric data for its location considering aspects such as shape of the lingula, gender, and race. Material and Methods. 132 macerated mandibles of Brazilian adult individuals, both sexes, Amerindian and Caucasian, were used. The distances: from mandibular notch to lingula; from anterior margin of ramus of mandible to lingula; from posterior margin of ramus of mandible to lingula; from mandibular base to lingula, and the height of lingula were obtained. To perform these measurements we used a digital caliper. The variables such as gender and race were analyzed. Results. The mean values found for the height of lingula and its location were determined according to the gender, race, and the lingula shape. Conclusion. This research provides additional data on height of the lingula and morphometric data for its location considering aspects such as shape of the lingula, gender, and race, information that had not been reported in the literature to date. We emphasize that a careful study considering gender and ethnic group makes procedures involving the region of lingula safer. Nilton Alves and Naira Figueiredo Deana Copyright © 2015 Nilton Alves and Naira Figueiredo Deana. All rights reserved. Hypoglossal-Facial Nerve Reconstruction Using a Y-Tube-Conduit Reduces Aberrant Synkinetic Movements of the Orbicularis Oculi and Vibrissal Muscles in Rats Tue, 09 Dec 2014 09:30:15 +0000 The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested () for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone. Yasemin Kaya, Umut Ozsoy, Murat Turhan, Doychin N. Angelov, and Levent Sarikcioglu Copyright © 2014 Yasemin Kaya et al. All rights reserved. Observational Study on the Occurrence of Muscle Spindles in Human Digastric and Mylohyoideus Muscles Wed, 16 Jul 2014 14:31:58 +0000 Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS) is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3–7) MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0–2) in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference () was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS. Daniele Saverino, Amleto De Santanna, Rita Simone, Stefano Cervioni, Erik Cattrysse, and Marco Testa Copyright © 2014 Daniele Saverino et al. All rights reserved. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy Tue, 08 Jul 2014 08:28:14 +0000 Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. José Manuel Castillo-López, Juan Antonio Díaz-Mancha, Alberto Marcos Heredia-Rizo, Lourdes María Fernández-Seguín, Juan Polo-Padillo, Gabriel Domínguez-Maldonado, and Pedro V. Munuera Copyright © 2014 José Manuel Castillo-López et al. All rights reserved. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats Wed, 18 Jun 2014 07:14:11 +0000 Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome. Norshalizah Mamikutty, Zar Chi Thent, Shaiful Ridzwan Sapri, Natasya Nadia Sahruddin, Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof, and Farihah Haji Suhaimi Copyright © 2014 Norshalizah Mamikutty et al. All rights reserved. Novelties in the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System and Related Disorders Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:40:22 +0000 Branislav Filipović, Nevena Radonjic, Igor Jakovcevski, and Milos Petrovic Copyright © 2014 Branislav Filipović et al. All rights reserved. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Extrapyramidal Adverse Effects Tue, 03 Jun 2014 06:40:59 +0000 Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects are well recognized in the context of first-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, with atypical mechanism of action, especially lower dopamine receptors affinity, was met with great expectations among clinicians regarding their potentially lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal syndrome. This review gives a brief summary of the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal syndrome. Numerous studies have examined the incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. The majority of these studies clearly indicate that extrapyramidal syndrome does occur with second-generation agents, though in lower rates in comparison with first generation. Risk factors are the choice of a particular second-generation agent (with clozapine carrying the lowest risk and risperidone the highest), high doses, history of previous extrapyramidal symptoms, and comorbidity. Also, in comparative studies, the choice of a first-generation comparator significantly influences the results. Extrapyramidal syndrome remains clinically important even in the era of second-generation antipsychotics. The incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome differ amongst these antipsychotics, but the fact is that these drugs have not lived up to the expectation regarding their tolerability. Nevena Divac, Milica Prostran, Igor Jakovcevski, and Natasa Cerovac Copyright © 2014 Nevena Divac et al. All rights reserved. Suprascapular Notch Asymmetry: A Study on 311 Patients Mon, 12 May 2014 07:23:01 +0000 The most important risk factor of suprascapular nerve entrapment is probably the shape of the suprascapular notch (SSN). The aim of the study was to perform a radiological study of the symmetry of SSN. Included in the study were 311 patients (137 women and 174 men) who underwent standard computed tomography investigation of the chest. A total of 622 computed tomography scans of scapulae were retrospectively analyzed to classify suprascapular notches into five types. Suprascapular notch was recognized as a symmetrical feature in 53.45% of the patients. Symmetry was more frequently seen in females (54.0% versus 52.9%), but not to any significant degree (). Type III was the most commonly noted symmetrical feature (66.9%) and type II was less common (0.6%). Type III was the most symmetrical type of suprascapular notch, occurring significantly more often as a symmetrical feature in comparison with type I (), type II (), or type IV (). Our investigation did not show that the suprascapular notch is a symmetrical feature. However, symmetry was recognized more frequently in the case of type III SSN. No significant differences in symmetry were found with regard to sex. Michał Polguj, Marcin Sibiński, Andrzej Grzegorzewski, Piotr Grzelak, Ludomir Stefańczyk, and Mirosław Topol Copyright © 2014 Michał Polguj et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex Thu, 08 May 2014 09:26:56 +0000 Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. Milan Aksić, Nevena V. Radonjić, Dubravka Aleksić, Gordana Jevtić, Branka Marković, Nataša Petronijević, Vidosava Radonjić, and Branislav Filipović Copyright © 2014 Milan Aksić et al. All rights reserved. Endodontic and Clinical Considerations in the Management of Variable Anatomy in Mandibular Premolars: A Literature Review Thu, 08 May 2014 06:49:02 +0000 Mandibular premolars are known to have numerous anatomic variations of their roots and root canals, which are a challenge to treat endodontically. The paper reviews literature to detail the various clinically relevant anatomic considerations with detailed techniques and methods to successfully manage these anomalies. An emphasis and detailed description of every step of treatment including preoperative diagnosis, intraoperative identification and management, and surgical endodontic considerations for the successful management of these complex cases have been included. Denzil Albuquerque, Jojo Kottoor, and Mohammad Hammo Copyright © 2014 Denzil Albuquerque et al. All rights reserved. The Urethral Rhabdosphincter, Levator Ani Muscle, and Perineal Membrane: A Review Sun, 27 Apr 2014 11:43:11 +0000 Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the rhabdosphincter and adjacent tissues is mandatory during urologic surgery to ensure reliable oncologic and functional outcomes. To characterize the levator ani (LA) function for the urethral sphincter, we described connective tissue morphology between the LA and urethral rhabdosphincter. The interface tissue between the LA and rhabdosphincter area in males contained abundant irregularly arrayed elastic fibers and smooth muscles. The male rhabdosphincter was positioned alongside the LA to divide the elevation force and not in-series along the axis of LA contraction. The male perineal membrane was thin but solid and extends along the inferior margin or bottom of the rhabdosphincter area. In contrast, the female rhabdosphincter, including the compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter muscles, was embedded in the elastic fiber mesh that is continuous with the thick, multilaminar perineal membrane. The inferomedial edge of the female LA was attached to the upper surface of the perineal membrane and not directly attached to the rhabdosphincter. We presented new diagrams showing the gender differences in topographical anatomy of the LA and rhabdosphincter. Nobuyuki Hinata and Gen Murakami Copyright © 2014 Nobuyuki Hinata and Gen Murakami. All rights reserved. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates Sun, 13 Apr 2014 15:20:22 +0000 The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Rafael Vieira Bretas, Rafael Souto Maior, Munkhzul Davaasuren, Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Hisao Nishijo, and Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of Cephalic Indices in Older Children and Adolescents of a Nigerian Population Tue, 08 Apr 2014 06:39:43 +0000 Background. A study on the cephalic index was carried out on subjects from school students in Ogbia tribe of Bayelsa state in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This study determined the cephalic indices among the school students. In the present study, seven hundred subjects were randomly selected from secondary schools comprising 350 males and 350 females, respectively, with age range from 11–20 years, with both parents and grandparents of Ogbia tribe. The length and breadth of the head were measured using a spreading caliper from standard bony landmarks. The measurable point for head length was measured between the glabella and inions while the head breadth was the widest biparietal diameter. The cephalic index was head breadth divided by the head length and multiplied by 100. The result showed that the mean cephalic index was 76.56. Males had a cephalic index of 77.21, while females had a cephalic index of 76.50. Based on this study, 78.68% of individuals were mesocephalic, 11.4% dolichocephalic, 9.0% Brachycephalic, and 0.43% hyperbrachycephalic. This research showed that the school students have mesocephalic phenotype. The data from this research will be useful in anthropology, genetics, forensic medicine, and clinical practice. Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami Copyright © 2014 Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami. All rights reserved. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Improve Heat Tolerance and Hypothalamic Damage in Heat Stressed Mice Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:58:04 +0000 Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment. Ling-Shu Tseng, Sheng-Hsien Chen, Mao-Tsun Lin, and Ying-Chu Lin Copyright © 2014 Ling-Shu Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Radiological Study of Ossified Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament as Potential Risk Factor of Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment Thu, 03 Apr 2014 16:27:52 +0000 The suprascapular notch is covered superiorly by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This region is the most common place of suprascapular nerve entrapment formation. The study was performed on 812 specimens: 86 dry scapulae, 104 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulders, and 622 computer topography scans of scapulae. In the cases with completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament, the following measurements were performed: proximal and distal width of the bony bridge, middle transverse and vertical diameter of the suprascapular foramen, and area of the suprascapular foramen. An ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was observed more often in men and in the right scapula. The mean age of the subjects with a completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was found to be similar than in those without ossification. The ossified band-shaped type of superior transverse scapular ligament was more common than the fan-shaped type and reduced the space below the ligament to a significantly greater degree. The ossified band-shaped type should be taken into consideration as a potential risk factor in the formation of suprascapular nerve entrapment. It could explain the comparable frequency of neuropathy in various populations throughout the world despite the significant differences between them in occurrence of ossified superior transverse scapular ligament. Michał Polguj, Marcin Sibiński, Andrzej Grzegorzewski, Michał Waszczykowski, Agata Majos, and Mirosław Topol Copyright © 2014 Michał Polguj et al. All rights reserved. Volumetric Analysis of Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Prefrontal Cortex in Therapy-Naive PTSD Participants Thu, 13 Mar 2014 10:01:37 +0000 Objective. In our study we have hypothesized that volume changes of amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male posttraumatic stress disorder participants. Material and Methods. We have conducted a study of 79 male participants who underwent MRI brain scanning. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed in 49 participants. After MRI was taken all scans were software based volume computed and statistically processed. Results. We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and participants without PTSD. There were no significant differences in volumes of hippocampi and prefrontal cortices. Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830–0.967) and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810–0.954) in the group of PTSD participants which makes both variables highly statistically significant. Conclusion. The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. Concerning important functions of the amygdala and her neuroanatomical connections with other brain structures, we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different brain structures in participants with PTSD. Ana Starcevic, Srdjan Postic, Zoran Radojicic, Branislav Starcevic, Srdjan Milovanovic, Andrej Ilankovic, Ivan Dimitrijevic, Aleksandar Damjanovic, Milan Aksić, and Vidosava Radonjic Copyright © 2014 Ana Starcevic et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain Mon, 10 Mar 2014 08:54:49 +0000 Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD) produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach) release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS) cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P) 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system. Branka Marković, Nevena V. Radonjić, Milan Aksić, Branislav Filipović, and Nataša Petronijević Copyright © 2014 Branka Marković et al. All rights reserved. Simple Method for Evaluation of Planum Temporale Pyramidal Neurons Shrinkage in Postmortem Tissue of Alzheimer Disease Patients Tue, 11 Feb 2014 11:40:43 +0000 We measured the length of the pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III in four subregions of the planum temporale (transitions into superior temporal gyrus, Heschl’s gyrus, insular cortex, and Sylvian fissure) in control group and Alzheimer disease patients. Our hypothesis was that overall length of the pyramidal neurons would be smaller in the Alzheimer disease group compared to controls and also there would be right-left asymmetry in both the control and Alzheimer disease groups. We found pyramidal neuron length asymmetry only in controls—in the transition into the Sylvian fissure—and the rest of the subregions in the control group and Alzheimer disease patients did not show size difference. However, control-Alzheimer disease group pyramidal neuron length comparison revealed (a) no length difference in superior temporal gyrus transition area, (b) reversal of asymmetry in the insular transition area with left insular transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, (c) both right and left Heschl’s gyrus transitions significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, and (d) right Sylvian fissure transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group. This neuronal length measurement method could supplement already existing neuropathological criteria for postmortem Alzheimer disease diagnostics. Martina Kutová, Jana Mrzílková, Denisa Kirdajová, Daniela Řípová, and Petr Zach Copyright © 2014 Martina Kutová et al. All rights reserved. On the Relationships of Postcanine Tooth Size with Dietary Quality and Brain Volume in Primates: Implications for Hominin Evolution Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:30:03 +0000 Brain volume and cheek-tooth size have traditionally been considered as two traits that show opposite evolutionary trends during the evolution of Homo. As a result, differences in encephalization and molarization among hominins tend to be interpreted in paleobiological grounds, because both traits were presumably linked to the dietary quality of extinct species. Here we show that there is an essential difference between the genus Homo and the living primate species, because postcanine tooth size and brain volume are related to negative allometry in primates and show an inverse relationship in Homo. However, when size effects are removed, the negative relationship between encephalization and molarization holds only for platyrrhines and the genus Homo. In addition, there is no general trend for the relationship between postcanine tooth size and dietary quality among the living primates. If size and phylogeny effects are both removed, this relationship vanishes in many taxonomic groups. As a result, the suggestion that the presence of well-developed postcanine teeth in extinct hominins should be indicative of a poor-quality diet cannot be generalized to all extant and extinct primates. Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas, Juan Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan Carlos Aledo, and Paul Palmqvist Copyright © 2014 Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas et al. All rights reserved. The Proteome of the Differentiating Mesencephalic Progenitor Cell Line CSM14.1 In Vitro Thu, 30 Jan 2014 07:59:59 +0000 The treatment of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human embryonic mesencephalic tissue is a promising approach. However, the origin of these cells causes major problems: availability and standardization of the graft. Therefore, the generation of unlimited numbers of DA neurons from various types of stem or progenitor cells has been brought into focus. A source for DA neurons might be conditionally immortalized progenitor cells. The temperature-sensitive immortalized cell line CSM14.1 derived from the mesencephalon of an embryonic rat has been used successfully for transplantation experiments. This cell line was analyzed by unbiased stereology of cell type specific marker proteins and 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to characterize the differentially expressed proteome. Undifferentiated CSM14.1 cells only expressed the stem cell marker nestin, whereas differentiated cells expressed GFAP or NeuN and tyrosine hydroxylase. An increase of the latter cells during differentiation could be shown. By using proteomics an explanation on the protein level was found for the observed changes in cell morphology during differentiation, when CSM14.1 cells possessed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The results obtained in this study confirm the suitability of CSM14.1 cells as an in vitro model for the study of neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation in rats. B. Weiss, S. Haas, G. Lessner, S. Mikkat, M. Kreutzer, M. O. Glocker, A. Wree, and O. Schmitt Copyright © 2014 B. Weiss et al. All rights reserved. Ultrastructure and Light Microscope Analysis of Intact Skin after a Varying Number of Low Level Laser Irradiations in Mice Wed, 29 Jan 2014 06:57:18 +0000 Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to relieve pain, inflammation, and wound healing processes. Thus, the skin is overexposed to laser and this effect is not completely understood. This study analyzed the effects of the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) on the intact skin of the masseteric region in mice of strain HRS/J. The animals were equally divided into control (0 J/cm2) and irradiated (20 J/cm2), and each of these groups was further equally divided according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) and underwent LLLT on alternate days. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The animals receiving applications exhibited open channels more dilated between the keratinocytes and photobiomodulation effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts by TEM. Under the light microscope after 10 laser applications, the type I collagen decreased compared to the three and six applications. Under these experimental conditions, all numbers of applications provided photobiomodulatory effect on the epidermis and dermis, without damage. More studies are needed to standardize the energy density and number of applications recommended for laser therapy to have a better cost-benefit ratio associated with treatment. Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa, Juliane Caroline Leão, Élen Camargo Rizzi, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Fernando José Dias, Ii-sei Watanabe, and Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa Copyright © 2014 Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Wolframin Expression in Human Placenta during Pregnancy: Comparison among Physiological and Pathological States Thu, 23 Jan 2014 13:26:03 +0000 The WFS1 gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum called wolframin, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and further organ abnormalities. Disruption of the WFS1 gene in mice causes progressive β-cell loss in the pancreas and impaired stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin secretion. However, little is known about the physiological functions of this protein. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of wolframin in human placenta throughout pregnancy in normal women and diabetic pregnant women. In normal placenta, there was a modulation of wolframin throughout pregnancy with a strong level of expression during the first trimester and a moderate level in the third trimester of gestation. In diabetic women, wolframin expression was strongly reduced in the third trimester of gestation. The pattern of expression of wolframin in normal placenta suggests that this protein may be required to sustain normal rates of cytotrophoblast cell proliferation during the first trimester of gestation. The decrease in wolframin expression in diabetic placenta suggests that this protein may participate in maintaining the physiologic glucose homeostasis in this organ. Angela Lucariello, Angelica Perna, Carmine Sellitto, Alfonso Baldi, Alessandro Iannaccone, Luigi Cobellis, Antonio De Luca, and Maria De Falco Copyright © 2014 Angela Lucariello et al. All rights reserved. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study Sun, 19 Jan 2014 09:51:43 +0000 Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. Alberto Di Somma, Matteo de Notaris, Vita Stagno, Luis Serra, Joaquim Enseñat, Isam Alobid, Joan San Molina, Joan Berenguer, Paolo Cappabianca, and Alberto Prats-Galino Copyright © 2014 Alberto Di Somma et al. All rights reserved. Site-Specific Distribution of CD68-Positive Microglial Cells in the Brains of Human Midterm Fetuses: A Topographical Relationship with Growing Axons Sun, 29 Dec 2013 10:52:45 +0000 Using 5 fetuses of gestational age (GA) of 15-16 weeks and 4 of GA of 22–25 weeks, we examined site- and stage-dependent differences in CD68-positive microglial cell distribution in human fetal brains. CD68 positive cells were evident in the floor of the fourth ventricle and the pons and olive at 15-16 weeks, accumulating in and around the hippocampus at 22–25 weeks. At both stages, the accumulation of these cells was evident around the optic tract and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. When we compared CD68-positive cell distribution with the topographical anatomy of GAP43-positive developing axons, we found that positive axons were usually unaccompanied by CD68-positive cells, except in the transpontine corticofugal tract and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Likewise, microglial cell distribution did not correspond with habenulointerpeduncular tract. Therefore, the distribution of CD68-positive cells during normal brain development may not reflect a supportive role of these microglia in axonogenesis of midterm human fetuses. Kwang Ho Cho, Jin Sung Cheong, Ji Hyun Kim, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, and Baik Hwan Cho Copyright © 2013 Kwang Ho Cho et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:12:21 +0000 Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Tainá de Abreu, Gabriel A. Pfrimer, Sylla F. Silva, Janine M. Ziermann, Frederico O. Carneiro-e-Silva, Carlos Tomaz, Maria Clotilde H. Tavares, Rafael S. Maior, and Tales A. Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2013 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells Sat, 07 Dec 2013 15:38:32 +0000 We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. Chunyi Li, Allan Pearson, and Chris McMahon Copyright © 2013 Chunyi Li et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Otx2 and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity in the Superior Colliculus in the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Knockout Mice Mon, 11 Nov 2013 10:49:58 +0000 The superior colliculus (SC), a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and β subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR-β) have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR-β-knockout (KO) mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-)immunoreactive (IR) neurons, their anatomical bases in the SC were unknown. In the present study, Otx2 and PV-immunolabeling in the adult mouse SC were investigated in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Although there were no differences in distribution patterns of Otx2 and PV-IR cells between the wild type and PDGFR-β KO mice, the mean numbers of both of the Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Furthermore, average diameters of Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. These findings suggest that PDGFR-β plays a critical role in the functional development of the SC through its effects on Otx2- and PV-IR cells, provided specific roles of Otx2 protein and PV-IR cells in the development of SC neurons and visual information processing, respectively. Juanjuan Zhao, Susumu Urakawa, Jumpei Matsumoto, Ruixi Li, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yuwen Peng, Taketoshi Ono, and Hisao Nishijo Copyright © 2013 Juanjuan Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population Tue, 05 Nov 2013 15:30:24 +0000 The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. Fitdriyah Hussain, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Azlin Sa’at, Azian Abd. Aziz, Md. Golam Hossain, T. Kamarul, and Ardiyansyah Syahrom Copyright © 2013 Fitdriyah Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Cellular and Axonal Diversity in Molecular Layer Heterotopia of the Rat Cerebellar Vermis Thu, 26 Sep 2013 10:56:19 +0000 Molecular layer heterotopia of the cerebellar primary fissure are a characteristic of many rat strains and are hypothesized to result from defect of granule cells exiting the external granule cell layer during cerebellar development. However, the cellular and axonal constituents of these malformations remain poorly understood. In the present report, we use histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to identify neuronal, glial, and axonal classes in molecular layer heterotopia. In particular, we identify parvalbumin-expressing molecular layer interneurons in heterotopia as well as three glial cell types including Bergmann glia, Olig2-expressing oligodendrocytes, and Iba1-expressing microglia. In addition, we document the presence of myelinated, serotonergic, catecholaminergic, and cholinergic axons in heterotopia indicating possible spinal and brainstem afferent projections to heterotopic cells. These findings are relevant toward understanding the mechanisms of normal and abnormal cerebellar development. Sarah E. Van Dine, Elsaid Salem, Elizabeth George, Nga Yan Siu, Timothy Dotzler, and Raddy L. Ramos Copyright © 2013 Sarah E. Van Dine et al. All rights reserved. New Morphological Features for Grading Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Thu, 25 Jul 2013 08:34:48 +0000 Pathological diagnosis is influenced by subjective factors such as the individual experience and knowledge of doctors. Therefore, it may be interpreted in different ways for the same symptoms. The appearance of digital pathology has created good foundation for objective diagnoses based on quantitative feature analysis. Recently, numerous studies are being done to develop automated diagnosis based on the digital pathology. But there are as of yet no general automated methods for pathological diagnosis due to its specific nature. Therefore, specific methods according to a type of disease and a lesion could be designed. This study proposes quantitative features that are designed to diagnose pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. In the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the region of interest is a duct that consists of lumen and epithelium. Therefore, we first segment the lumen and epithelial nuclei from a tissue image. Then, we extract the specific features to diagnose the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from the segmented objects. The experiment evaluated the classification performance of the SVM learned by the proposed features. The results showed an accuracy of 94.38% in the experiment distinguishing between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and normal tissue and a classification accuracy of 77.03% distinguishing between the stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Jae-Won Song and Ju-Hong Lee Copyright © 2013 Jae-Won Song and Ju-Hong Lee. All rights reserved. Myosin Isoforms and Contractile Properties of Single Fibers of Human Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Mon, 22 Jul 2013 13:10:42 +0000 The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females. Antonio Paoli, Quirico F. Pacelli, Pasqua Cancellara, Luana Toniolo, Tatiana Moro, Marta Canato, Danilo Miotti, and Carlo Reggiani Copyright © 2013 Antonio Paoli et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Primitive Olfactory Artery in Serbian Population Sun, 14 Jul 2013 09:41:07 +0000 The continuation of the cranial branch of the primitive internal carotid artery is called the primitive olfactory artery (POℓA). It takes this name according to the fact that it is mainly concerned with supplying the developing nasal region. We reported two new cases of the persistent POℓA (PPOℓA) in Serbian population after retrospective analysis of digital images of 200 fetal and 269 adult cases. This PPOℓA originated from the precommunicating part (A1) of the right anterior cerebral artery, coursed along the olfactory tract, and turned on the medial cerebral hemisphere in both male adults. Some vascular variations (fenestration of the A1 and the median artery of the corpus callosum) were associated with this persistent vessel. According to the fact that we did not find aneurysm in our previous and two recent cases, we are of the opinion that PPOℓA is usually asymptomatic in Serbian population. Ljiljana Vasović, Milena Trandafilović, Slobodan Vlajković, Ivan Jovanović, and Slađana Ugrenović Copyright © 2013 Ljiljana Vasović et al. All rights reserved. The Variable Origin of the Recurrent Artery of Heubner: An Anatomical and Morphometric Study Tue, 09 Jul 2013 15:08:34 +0000 The recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) is the largest vessel of the medial lenticulostriate arteries. It supplies many deep structures, mainly the corpus striatum, the globus pallidus, and the anterior crus of the internal capsule. The aim of the present paper was studying the morphological variations of the RAH and its diameter in relation to different areas of origin. The series contained the records from 183 formalin-fixed adult human brains. The calibrated digital images of the studied brains were evaluated and measured by Image J, which can calculate the number of pixels and convert them to metric measures. The RAH arose most often from the postcommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery (47.81%). It originated from the precommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery in 3.55% and at the level of the anterior communicating artery in 43.4% of cases. The RAH was missing in 5.19% and doubled in 6.28% of cases. The mean outer diameter of the RAH was 0.6 mm. The maximal measured diameter was 1.34 mm, and the minimal diameter was 0.19 mm. The awareness of the various anatomical and morphometric variations of the RAH is essential in planning the neurosurgical procedures to avoid unexpected neurological complications. Hisham El Falougy, Petra Selmeciova, Eliska Kubikova, and Zora Haviarová Copyright © 2013 Hisham El Falougy et al. All rights reserved. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study Tue, 02 Jul 2013 10:38:02 +0000 This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength) and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1%) in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis) in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g) were allocated into the 6 groups (): CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery. Fernando José Dias, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Ricardo Alexandre Junqueria Calzzani, Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa, Luiz Gustavo Sousa, Sonia Regina Yokomizo de Almeida, Diego Pulzatto Cury, and Ii-sei Watanabe Copyright © 2013 Fernando José Dias et al. All rights reserved. Development and Remodeling of the Vertebrate Blood-Gas Barrier Thu, 27 Dec 2012 11:09:20 +0000 During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG-β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung. Andrew Makanya, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, and Valentin Djonov Copyright © 2013 Andrew Makanya et al. All rights reserved. Histochemical Evaluation of Human Prostatic Tissues with Cratylia mollis Seed Lectin Wed, 16 Jun 2010 08:59:04 +0000 Lectins, proteins which selectively recognize carbohydrates, have been used in histochemistry for the evaluation of changes in glycosylation in processes of cellular differentiation and/or dedifferentiation. Cratylia mollis seed lectins (Cramoll 1,4 and Cramoll 3), conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, were used as histochemical probes in human prostate tissues: normal (NP), hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate carcinoma (PCa). The staining pattern of Con-A and Cramoll 1,4 in BPH was more intense than in NP. These lectins also showed staining differences between BPH and PCa; the latter showing decreased staining intensity with an increased degree of malignancy. PNA and Cramoll 3 stained epithelial cells similarly in all diagnoses although they did present intense staining of PCa glands lumen. Corpora amylacea were not differentially recognized by any of the lectins. Cramoll 1,4 and Cramoll 3 seed lectins present themselves as candidates for histochemical probes for prostate pathologies when compared to commercial lectins such as Con-A and PNA. Amanda L. R. de Lima, Carmelita C. B. Cavalcanti, Mariana C. C. Silva, Patrícia M. G. Paiva, Luana C. B. B. Coelho, Eduardo I. C. Beltrão, and Maria T. dos S. Correia Copyright © 2010 Amanda L. R. de Lima et al. All rights reserved.