BioMed Research International https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Comparison of the Feasibility and Safety of First- versus Second-Generation AMPLATZER™ Occluders for Left Atrial Appendage Closure Wed, 20 Sep 2017 07:05:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1519362/ Introduction. Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is considered an alternative to oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the first- and second-generation AMPLATZER Devices for LAAC, AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug (ACP) versus AMPLATZER Amulet™. Methods. Procedural data, such as fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, and contrast-dye, as well as VARC criteria and major adverse events (MAEs) were assessed for both devices. The rate of peridevice leaks was analyzed at echocardiographic follow-up. Results. A total of 196 patients with AF underwent LAAC with the ACP () or Amulet device (). The use of Amulet was associated with significantly lower fluoroscopy time (14.8 ± 7.4 min versus 10.6 ± 4.1 min; ), lower radiation dose (4833 ± 3360 cGycm2 versus 3206 ± 2169 cGycm2; ), and reduced amount of contrast-dye (150.2 ± 83.9 ml versus 128.8 ± 46.0 ml; ). Furthermore, LAAC with Amulet devices resulted in lower device-resizing rates (3 versus 16 cases; ). Peridevice leaks were less frequent in the Amulet group (12 versus 4; ). MAE occurred in 6 ACP and 4 Amulet patients (). Conclusions. The Amulet device is associated with shorter fluoroscopy times and radiation dosages, reduced use of contrast-dye, lower recapture rates, and less peridevice leaks as compared to the ACP. Baravan Al-Kassou and Heyder Omran Copyright © 2017 Baravan Al-Kassou and Heyder Omran. All rights reserved. Differentiation of Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast Cells by In Vitro Coculture Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7360354/ Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in humans, though cellular components of the knee have little regenerative or proliferation potential. This study investigated the differentiation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into human anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts (hACLFs) in vitro through induction with bFGF and TGF-β1 with coculture systems. Groups A and B comprised hAMSCs at the 3rd passage cultured with and without bFGF and TGF-β1, respectively; Groups C and D consisted of hAMSCs and hACLFs in monolayer coculture with and without bFGF and TGF-β1, respectively; Groups E and F were composed of hAMSCs and hACLFs in Transwell coculture with and without bFGF and TGF-β1, respectively. Cell morphology and proliferation were recorded. Protein expression and relative mRNA expression were evaluated in each group. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in the induced groups than in the noninduced groups. Protein expression increased over time with the highest expression observed in Group E. mRNA levels were significantly higher in Group E than in other groups. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of the Transwell coculture system for this purpose, and hAMSCs were successfully differentiated into hACLFs. Thus, hAMSCs may be a superior choice for hACLF differentiation via Transwell coculture. Yuwan Li, Ziming Liu, Ying Jin, Xizhong Zhu, Shengmin Wang, Jibin Yang, Youliang Ren, Qiang Fu, Huazhang Xiong, Gang Zou, and Yi Liu Copyright © 2017 Yuwan Li et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Ebola Virus Infection among Western Healthcare Workers Unable to Recall the Transmission Route” Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7458242/ Mark G. Kortepeter, Theodore J. Cieslak, Elena H. Kwon, Philip W. Smith, Christopher J. Kratochvil, and Angela L. Hewlett Copyright © 2017 Mark G. Kortepeter et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2356346/ Objective. The aim of this study was to summarize evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Design. Studies retrieved from the Cochrane Plus, PEDro, and Pubmed databases were systematically reviewed. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses involving adults with fibromyalgia were included. The primary outcomes considered in this systematic review were pain, global well-being, symptoms of depression, and health-related quality of life. Results. Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. This study provides strong evidence that physical exercise reduces pain (−1.11 [95% CI] −1.52; −0.71; overall effect ), global well-being (−0.67 [95% CI] −0.89, −0.45; ), and symptoms of depression (−0.40 [95% CI] −0.55, −0.24; ) and that it improves both components of health-related quality of life (physical: 0.77 [95% CI] 0.47; 1.08; ; mental: 0.49 [95% CI] 0.27; 0.71; ). Conclusions. This study concludes that aerobic and muscle strengthening exercises are the most effective way of reducing pain and improving global well-being in people with fibromyalgia and that stretching and aerobic exercises increase health-related quality of life. In addition, combined exercise produces the biggest beneficial effect on symptoms of depression. M. Dolores Sosa-Reina, Susana Nunez-Nagy, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Jorge Monserrat, and Melchor Álvarez-Mon Copyright © 2017 M. Dolores Sosa-Reina et al. All rights reserved. The Proangiogenic Capabilities of Malignant Ascites Generated by Aggressive Ovarian Tumors Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2592496/ Here we examined whether malignant ascites may determine ovarian tumor angiogenesis, and if so whether ascites generated by highly aggressive serous and undifferentiated cancers are more proangiogenic than those from less aggressive clear cell and endometrioid tumors. Angiogenesis was analyzed according to expression of CD31, CD34, and connexin 43. Proliferation and migration of endothelial cells were tested using fluorescence-based methods. The quantification of angiogenic agents and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was performed using specific immunoassays. Results showed that the expression of CD31 and CD34 in serous and undifferentiated tumors was greater, whereas endothelial expression of connexin 43 was lower than in clear cell and endometrioid lesions. Serous cancers that formed in the presence of ascites displayed increased expression of connexin 43 in vascular smooth muscles as compared with tumors developed in the fluid’s absence. Endothelial cells exposed to ascites from serous and undifferentiated tumors proliferated and migrated more vigorously than cells subjected to ascites from clear cell and endometrioid cancers. They also exhibited an increased level of HIF-1α and produced increased amounts of multiple proangiogenic agents. Our results indicate that high vascularization of aggressive ovarian tumors may be associated with profound angiogenic capabilities of ascites generated by these tumors. Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Paweł Uruski, Sebastian Szubert, Konstantin Maksin, Rafał Moszyński, Dariusz Szpurek, Aldona Woźniak, Stefan Sajdak, Andrzej Tykarski, and Krzysztof Książek Copyright © 2017 Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik et al. All rights reserved. Home Remodeling and Food Allergy Interact Synergistically to Increase the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3793679/ Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of home remodeling and food allergy (FA) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children. Methods. The Modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to survey 4,111 children recruited from 3 kindergartens and 6 elementary schools from Seongnam, Korea. Participants’ parents agreed for them to participate in physical examinations, skin prick tests, and blood tests. Results. Home remodeling in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.40, ), lifetime diagnosis of FA (aOR 3.95, ), parental history of AD (aOR 2.67, ), and FA (aOR 2.35, ) were independent risk factors for lifetime diagnosis of AD ever. When history of home remodeling and FA were combined, the risk for moderate-to-severe AD by scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score increased (aOR, 7.19, , P for interaction = 0.034). Conclusion. Home remodeling, lifetime diagnosis of FA, parental history of AD, and parental history of FA were independent risk factors for AD. In addition, we observed a synergistic interaction between home remodeling and FA in the risk of moderate-to-severe AD. Won Seok Lee, Kyung Suk Lee, Shinhae Lee, Myongsoon Sung, Seung-Jin Lee, Hye Mi Jee, Youn Ho Sheen, Man Yong Han, and Young-Ho Jung Copyright © 2017 Won Seok Lee et al. All rights reserved. Improving Prediction Accuracy of “Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections” Using Data Mining Models Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3292849/ Prediction of nosocomial infections among patients is an important part of clinical surveillance programs to enable the related personnel to take preventive actions in advance. Designing a clinical surveillance program with capability of predicting nosocomial infections is a challenging task due to several reasons, including high dimensionality of medical data, heterogenous data representation, and special knowledge required to extract patterns for prediction. In this paper, we present details of six data mining methods implemented using cross industry standard process for data mining to predict central line-associated blood stream infections. For our study, we selected datasets of healthcare-associated infections from US National Healthcare Safety Network and consumer survey data from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Our experiments show that central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) can be successfully predicted using AdaBoost method with an accuracy up to 89.7%. This will help in implementing effective clinical surveillance programs for infection control, as well as improving the accuracy detection of CLABSIs. Also, this reduces patients’ hospital stay cost and maintains patients’ safety. Amin Y. Noaman, Farrukh Nadeem, Abdul Hamid M. Ragab, Arwa Jamjoom, Nabeela Al-Abdullah, Mahreen Nasir, and Anser G. Ali Copyright © 2017 Amin Y. Noaman et al. All rights reserved. Andrographolide Promotes Neural Differentiation of Rat Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells through Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4210867/ Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are a high-yield source of pluripotent stem cells for use in cell-based therapies. We explored the effect of andrographolide (ANDRO, one of the ingredients of the medicinal herb extract) on the neural differentiation of rat ADSCs and associated molecular mechanisms. We observed that rat ADSCs were small and spindle-shaped and expressed multiple stem cell markers including nestin. They were multipotent as evidenced by adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural differentiation under appropriate conditions. The proportion of cells exhibiting neural-like morphology was higher, and neurites developed faster in the ANDRO group than in the control group in the same neural differentiation medium. Expression levels of the neural lineage markers MAP2, tau, GFAP, and β-tubulin III were higher in the ANDRO group. ANDRO induced a concentration-dependent increase in Wnt/β-catenin signaling as evidenced by the enhanced expression of nuclear β-catenin and the inhibited form of GSK-3β (pSer9). Thus, this study shows for the first time how by enhancing the neural differentiation of ADSCs we expect that ANDRO pretreatment may increase the efficacy of adult stem cell transplantation in nervous system diseases, but more exploration is needed. Yan Liang, Miao Li, Tao Lu, Wang Peng, and Jian-Huang Wu Copyright © 2017 Yan Liang et al. All rights reserved. Angelica sinensis Suppresses Body Weight Gain and Alters Expression of the FTO Gene in High-Fat-Diet Induced Obese Mice Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6280972/ The root of Angelica sinensis (RAS) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for preventing and treating various diseases. In this study, we assessed RAS supplementation effects on body weight and the FTO gene expression and methylation status in a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. Female obese mice were divided into groups according to RAS dosage in diet as follows: normal diet, HFD diet (HC), HFD with low-dosage RAS (DL), HFD with medium-dosage RAS (DM), and HFD with high-dosage RAS (DH). After RAS supplementation for 4 weeks, body weight suppression and FTO expression in DH mice were significantly higher than in HC mice, whereas no significant change in FTO expression was detected between DM and DL mice or in their offspring. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) revealed that the CpG island in the FTO promoter was hypermethylated up to 95.44% in the HC group, 91.67% in the DH group, and 90.00% in the normal diet group. Histological examination showed that adipocytes in the DH group were smaller than those in the HC group, indicating a potential role of RAS in obesity. This study indicated that RAS could ameliorate obesity induced by HFD and that the molecular mechanism might be associated with the expression of the FTO gene. Tao Zhong, Xiao-Yue Duan, Hao Zhang, Li Li, Hong-Ping Zhang, and Lili Niu Copyright © 2017 Tao Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans” Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5803246/ Shiyu Liu, Wei Qiu, Keke Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Biao Ren, Jinzhi He, Xin Xu, Lei Cheng, and Mingyun Li Copyright © 2017 Shiyu Liu et al. All rights reserved. Sterilization of Biofilm on a Titanium Surface Using a Combination of Nonthermal Plasma and Chlorhexidine Digluconate Tue, 19 Sep 2017 09:31:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6085741/ Nosocomial infections caused by opportunistic bacteria pose major healthcare problem worldwide. Out of the many microorganisms responsible for such infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium that accounts for 10–20% of hospital-acquired infections. These infections have mortality rates ranging from 18 to 60% and the cost of treatment ranges from $20,000 to $80,000 per infection. The formation of biofilms on medical devices and implants is responsible for the majority of those infections. Only limited progress has been made to prevent this issue in a safe and cost-effective manner. To address this, we propose employing jet plasma to break down and inactivate biofilms in vitro. Moreover, to improve the antimicrobial effect on the biofilm, a treatment method using a combination of jet plasma and a biocide known as chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate was investigated. We found that complete sterilization of P. aeruginosa biofilms can be achieved after combinatorial treatment using plasma and CHX. A decrease in biofilm viability was also observed using confocal laser scanning electron microscopy (CLSM). This treatment method sterilized biofilm-contaminated surfaces in a short treatment time, indicating it to be a potential tool for the removal of biofilms present on medical devices and implants. Tripti Thapa Gupta, Surya B. Karki, Jyl S. Matson, Daniel J. Gehling, and Halim Ayan Copyright © 2017 Tripti Thapa Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Profiling microRNA from Brain by Microarray in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Tue, 19 Sep 2017 08:42:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8030369/ MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which regulate numerous cell functions by targeting mRNA for cleavage or translational repression, and have been found to play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in AD brain as a reference of potential therapeutic miRNAs or biomarkers for this disease. We used amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double transgenic mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates to determine the expression of miRNAs in the brain. MiRNAs were profiled by microarray, and differentially expressed miRNAs underwent target prediction and enrichment analysis. Microarray analysis revealed 56 differentially expressed miRNAs in AD mouse brain, which involved 39 miRNAs that were significantly upregulated and 19 that were downregulated at different ages. Among those miRNAs, a total of 11 miRNAs, including miR-342-3p, miR-342-5p, miR-376c-3p, and miR-301b-3p, were not only conserved in human but also predicted to have targets and signaling pathways closely related to the pathology of AD. In conclusion, in this study, differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in AD brain and proposed as biomarkers, which may have the potential to indicate AD progression. Despite being preliminary, these results may aid in investigating pathological hallmarks and identify effective therapeutic targets. Lin-lin Wang, Li Min, Qing-dong Guo, Jun-xia Zhang, Hai-lun Jiang, Shuai Shao, Jian-guo Xing, Lin-lin Yin, Jiang-hong Liu, Rui Liu, and Shui-long Guo Copyright © 2017 Lin-lin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Motility, Mucosal Mast Cell, and Intestinal Histology in Rats: Effect of Prednisone Tue, 19 Sep 2017 08:38:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4637621/ Our aim was to verify the effects of prednisone related to gastrointestinal motility, intestinal histology, and mucosal mast cells in rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group (vehicle) animals receiving saline 0.9% () or treated orally with 0.625 mg/kg/day of prednisone () or 2.5 mg/kg/day of prednisone () during 15 days. Mast cells and other histologic analyses were performed in order to correlate to gastric emptying, cecum arrival, and small intestine transit evaluated by Alternating Current Biosusceptometry. Results showed that prednisone in adult rats increased the frequency of gastric contractions, hastened gastric emptying, slowed small intestinal transit, and reduced mucosal mast cells. Histologically, the treatment with both doses of prednisone decreased villus height, whereas longitudinal and circular muscles and crypt depth were not affected. These findings indicate an impairment of intestinal absorption which may be linked to several GI dysfunctions and symptoms. The relationship between gastrointestinal motor disorders and cellular immunity needs to be clarified in experimental studies since prednisone is one of the most prescribed glucocorticoids worldwide. Maysa Bruno de Lima, Loyane Almeida Gama, Andrieli Taise Hauschildt, Denize Jussara Rupolo Dall’Agnol, Luciana Aparecida Corá, and Madileine Francely Americo Copyright © 2017 Maysa Bruno de Lima et al. All rights reserved. Quantifying Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Singers: Perceptual and Objective Findings Tue, 19 Sep 2017 08:18:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3918214/ This study examines the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms and oropharyngeal pH levels in singers. We hypothesized that reported symptoms would correlate with objective measures of pH levels from the oropharynx, including the number and total duration of reflux episodes. Twenty professional/semiprofessional singers completed the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and underwent oropharyngeal pH monitoring. Mild, moderate, or severe pH exposure was recorded during oropharyngeal pH monitoring. Correlations were performed to examine potential relationships between reflux symptoms and duration of LPR episodes. Symptom severity did not correlate with pH levels; however, we found a number of covariances of interest. Large sample sizes are necessary to determine if true correlations exist. Our results suggest that singers may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to LPR and may therefore manifest symptoms, even in response to subtle changes in pH. This study emphasizes the importance of sensitive and objective measures of reflux severity as well as consideration of the cumulative time of reflux exposure in addition to the number of reflux episodes. Adam T. Lloyd, Bari Hoffman Ruddy, Erin Silverman, Vicki M. Lewis, and Jeffrey J. Lehman Copyright © 2017 Adam T. Lloyd et al. All rights reserved. Serological Analysis and Drug Resistance of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 4500 Healthy Subjects in Shenzhen, China Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:08:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3120138/ Objective. To understand the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in the population and to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infection. Methods. This study included a total of 4500 healthy subjects who were given physical examination in Shenzhen People’s Hospital from January to December in 2016. Venous blood was drawn from people to detect the MP- and CP-specific IgG and IgM in the serum using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The relationship of MP and CP infections with patient age, seasons, and percentage of infections was analyzed. Conclusion. CP and MP cause high rate of asymptomatic infection, which may be associated with the high incidence of CP and MP infection, especially in children and the elderly population. Therefore, the implementation of effective and practical prevention measures has become an urgent need. MP culture and drug sensitivity test should be performed as early as possible in patients with manifested MP infections in order to ensure timely and proper treatment and to reduce the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Dong Du, Shuping Liao, Yan Wu, Yang Jiao, Di Wu, Weiqing Wu, and Dapeng Yu Copyright © 2017 Dong Du et al. All rights reserved. Aprepitant for the Treatment of Chronic Refractory Pruritus Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4790810/ Chronic pruritus is a difficult condition to treat and is associated with several comorbidities, including insomnia, depression, and decreased quality of life. Treatment for chronic itch includes corticosteroids, antihistamines, and systemic therapies such as naltrexone, gabapentin, UV light therapy, and immunomodulatory treatments, including azathioprine, methotrexate, and cellcept. However, some patients still remain refractory to conventional therapy. Aprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting (CINV, PONV). Recently, aprepitant has demonstrated effectiveness in several case series and open label trials in relieving pruritus for patients refractory to other treatments. Patients with pruritus associated with Sézary syndrome, mycosis fungoides, lung adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma, sarcomas, metastatic solid tumors, chronic kidney disease, hyperuricemia, iron deficiency, brachioradial pruritus, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma have experienced considerable symptom relief with short-term use of aprepitant (up to two weeks). Due to differences in reporting and evaluation of drug effects, the mechanism of aprepitant’s role is difficult to understand based on the current literature. Herein, we evaluate aprepitant’s antipruritic effects and discuss its mechanism of action and adverse effects. We propose that aprepitant is an alternative for patients suffering from pruritus who do not obtain enough symptom relief from conventional therapy. Alice He, Jihad M. Alhariri, Ronald J. Sweren, Madan M. Kwatra, and Shawn G. Kwatra Copyright © 2017 Alice He et al. All rights reserved. Icariin Attenuates Synaptic and Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ1–42-Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7464872/ Icariin (ICA), a prenylated flavanol glycoside present in abundant quantities in Epimedium sagittatum, has shown promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Damage to synaptic plasticity induced by amyloid-beta-mediated neurotoxicity is considered a main pathological mechanism driving the learning and memory deficits present in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin in an Aβ1–42-induced rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Our results showed that Aβ1–42 injection induced loss of learning and memory behaviour in the Morris water maze, which could be reversed with intragastric administration of ICA. Furthermore, ICA reversed decreases in PSD-95, BDNF, pTrkB, pAkt, and pCREB expressions and prevented deterioration of synaptic interface structure. These findings indicate that ICA may improve synaptic plasticity through the BDNF/TrkB/Akt pathway and provide further evidence for its clinical application to improve learning and memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Chenxia Sheng, Panpan Xu, Kexin Zhou, Dan Deng, Chunhu Zhang, and Zhe Wang Copyright © 2017 Chenxia Sheng et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Approaches and Role of ncRNAs in Cardiovascular Disorders and Insulin Resistance Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4078346/ Diseases resulting from alterations in gene expressions through mutations in the genes or through changes in the gene expression regulation could be identified through the analysis of RNA expressions. ncRNAs play a significant role in regulation of the gene expression by controlling the expression levels of the coding RNAs and other cellular processes. Discoveries have shown that the human genome is encoded with sequences responsible for the transcription of thousands of ncRNAs. Even though the studies conducted on ncRNAs are still at initial stages, facts established so far display biomarkers that confirm their relationship with certain diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and insulin resistance. These studies have been facilitated with high throughput modern sequencing techniques such as microarrays and RNA sequencing. The data obtained through the above analysis are processed with the aid of existing databases, to deduce conclusions on different diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for specific diseases. This review focuses on the association of ncRNAs in disease prediction, focusing mainly on cardiovascular diseases and disorders caused by insulin resistance. The report also analyzes regulatory functions of ncRNAs and novel approaches used in disease therapeutics. Kalupahana Irushi Pamodya Liyanage and Gamage Upeksha Ganegoda Copyright © 2017 Kalupahana Irushi Pamodya Liyanage and Gamage Upeksha Ganegoda. All rights reserved. Sonographic Signs of Adenomyosis Are Prevalent in Women Undergoing Surgery for Endometriosis and May Suggest a Higher Risk of Infertility Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:17:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8967803/ Objectives. To determine the prevalence of ultrasound features suggestive of adenomyosis in women undergoing surgery for endometriosis compared with a control group of healthy women without endometriosis. Methods. Retrospective case-control study comparing women with intractable pain or infertility, who underwent transvaginal ultrasound and subsequent laparoscopic surgery, with a control group of healthy women without a previous history of endometriosis. A diagnosis of adenomyosis on TVUS was made based on asymmetrical myometrial thickening, linear striations, myometrial cysts, hyperechoic islands, irregular endometrial-myometrial junction, parallel shadowing, and localized adenomyomas and analyzed for one sign and for three or more signs. Results. The study and control groups included 94 and 60 women, respectively. In the study group, women were younger and had more dysmenorrhea and infertility symptoms. The presence of any sonographic feature of adenomyosis, as well as three or more signs, was found to be more prevalent in the study group, which persisted after controlling for age, for all features but linear striations. Women in the study group who had five or more sonographic features of adenomyosis had more than a threefold risk of suffering from infertility (OR = 3.19, , 95% CI; 1.25–8.17). There was no association with disease severity at surgery. Conclusions. Sonographic features of adenomyosis are more prevalent in women undergoing surgery for endometriosis compared to healthy controls. Women with more than five features had an increased risk of infertility. Vered H. Eisenberg, Nissim Arbib, Eyal Schiff, Motti Goldenberg, Daniel S. Seidman, and David Soriano Copyright © 2017 Vered H. Eisenberg et al. All rights reserved. Labor Induction with Orally Administrated Misoprostol: A Retrospective Cohort Study Mon, 18 Sep 2017 07:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6840592/ Introduction. One great challenge in obstetric care is labor inductions. Misoprostol has advantages in being cheap and stable at room temperature and available in resource-poor settings. Material and Methods. Retrospective cohort study of 4002 singleton pregnancies with a gestational age ≥34 w at Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, during 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Previously used methods of labor induction were compared with misoprostol given as a solution to drink, every second hour. Main outcome is as follows: Cesarean Section (CS) rate, acid-base status in cord blood, Apgar score < 7,5′, active time of labor, and blood loss > 1500 ml (PPH). Results. The proportion of CS decreased from 26% to 17% when orally given solution of misoprostol was introduced at the clinic (). No significant difference in the frequency of low Apgar score (), low aPh in cord blood (), or PPH () between the different methods of induction was studied. After adjustment for different risk factor for CS the only method of induction which was associated with CS was (Propess®) (aor = 2.9 (1.6–5.2)). Conclusion. Induction of labor with misoprostol, given as an oral solution to drink every second hour, gives a low rate of CS, without affecting maternal or fetal outcome. Tove Wallstrom, Hans Jarnbert-Pettersson, David Stenson, Helena Akerud, Elisabeth Darj, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, and Eva Wiberg-Itzel Copyright © 2017 Tove Wallstrom et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Standardized and Individualized Assessment of Masticatory Cycles Using Electromagnetic 3D Articulography and Computer Scripts Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7134389/ Masticatory movements are studied for decades in odontology; a better understanding of them could improve dental treatments. The aim of this study was to describe an innovative, accurate, and systematic method of analyzing masticatory cycles, generating comparable quantitative data. The masticatory cycles of 5 volunteers (Class I, 19 ± 1.7 years) without articular or dental occlusion problems were evaluated using 3D electromagnetic articulography supported by MATLAB software. The method allows the trajectory morphology of the set of chewing cycles to be analyzed from different views and angles. It was also possible to individualize the trajectory of each cycle providing accurate quantitative data, such as number of cycles, cycle areas in frontal view, and the ratio between each cycle area and the frontal mandibular border movement area. There was a moderate negative correlation (−0.61) between the area and the number of cycles: the greater the cycle area, the smaller the number of repetitions. Finally it was possible to evaluate the area of the cycles through time, which did not reveal a standardized behavior. The proposed method provided reproducible, intelligible, and accurate quantitative and graphical data, suggesting that it is promising and may be applied in different clinical situations and treatments. Ramón Fuentes, Alain Arias, María Florencia Lezcano, Diego Saravia, Gisaku Kuramochi, and Fernando José Dias Copyright © 2017 Ramón Fuentes et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future” Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1504316/ Roberto Gazzeri, Marcelo Galarza, and Alex Alfieri Copyright © 2017 Roberto Gazzeri et al. All rights reserved. Association between Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity in Chinese Han Male College Students Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2984826/ Some reports have shown that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is associated with the body mass index (BMI) and energy metabolism. Here we explored the association between NNMT gene polymorphisms and obesity. The subjects were recruited from male Chinese Han college student. 289 of them (19 ≤ body fat percentage (BF%)) were selected as the high body fat group (HBFG), 494 of them (3 ≤ BF% < 13.5) were selected as the low body fat group (LBFG), and then a case-control study (fat versus thin) was carried out to explore the association between the NNMT gene polymorphism and the body composition using tagSNPs method. A tagSNP (rs10891644) in NNMT gene was found significantly associated with the body composition (). At this locus, the BF% for the genotype GT, TT, and GG were , , and , respectively, and the differences between the GT and the GG + TT were highly significant (); the value of the GT versus (GG + TT) was 1.716 (, 95% CI = 1.240–2.235). Therefore, the variation of the tagSNP, rs10891644, is significantly associated with obesity and the GT carriers are the susceptible population. Qiong Zhou, Xiao-Juan Zhu, and Jiang-Hua Li Copyright © 2017 Qiong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Tissue Characterization and Dynamic Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Its Tissue Inhibitor in Conjunctival Filtering Bleb of Rats Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1054129/ Purpose. Using rat conjunctival bleb model, we correlated changes morphology and histology in the bleb with changes in MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels. Methods. Filtering surgeries were performed on rats. Dynamic changes in morphology and histopathology were observed using HE staining. Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting. Results. Well-elevated filtering blebs formed and persisted for an average of 12 days. Histological examination showed that inflammatory was dominant in postoperative days 1–3, and proliferating manifestation became the main sign 5 days later. Western blot showed that MMP-2 was downregulated 1 day after surgery, upregulated at 3 days, and observed with a peak at 7 days; then it persisted until 28 days. The difference was statistically significant (F = 280.18, ).TIMP-2 was upregulated 1 day after surgery and observed with a peak at 5 days; then it persisted until 28 days. The difference was statistically significant (F = 145.34, ). Conclusions. During the processes of conjunctival filtering bleb and scar formation in rats, the changes in MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels in the filtering area, together with a corresponding proliferation of fibroblasts and the accumulation of collagen fibres, resulted in scarring of filtering blebs. Ling Wang, Da-Bo Wang, Meng-Ying Liu, and Ru-Yong Yao Copyright © 2017 Ling Wang et al. All rights reserved. Citalopram Ameliorates Impairments in Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in Female 3xTgAD Mice Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1238687/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD. Mice were treated with citalopram or water from 5 months of age for 3 months. Citalopram treatment at approximately 10 mg/kg/day significantly improved spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, while not affecting anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in 3xTgAD mice. Further, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment in 3xTgAD mice was reversed by citalopram treatment. Citalopram treatment also significantly decreased the levels of insoluble Aβ40 in hippocampal and cortical tissues in 3xTgAD mice, accompanied with a reduced amyloid precursor protein (APP). Together, citalopram treatment may be a promising strategy for AD and further clinical trials should be conducted to verify the effect of citalopram on cognition in patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment. Zhang Wei, Guo Junhong, Niu Xiaoyuan, Wang Jie, Wang Zhaojun, Wu Meina, Yang Wei, Zhang Jun, and Qi Jinshun Copyright © 2017 Zhang Wei et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Are Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Ideal Candidates for Oocyte Donation?” Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/1467136/ George Queiroz Vaz, Alessandra Viviane Evangelista, Cassio Alessandro Paganoti Sartorio, Maria Cecilia Almeida Cardoso, Maria Cecilia Erthal, Paulo Gallo, and Marco Aurelio Pinho Oliveira Copyright © 2017 George Queiroz Vaz et al. All rights reserved. Incremental Value of Plaque Enhancement in Patients with Moderate or Severe Basilar Artery Stenosis: 3.0 T High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Study Sun, 17 Sep 2017 09:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4281629/ Aim. To investigate the clinical relevance of plaque’s morphological characteristics and distribution pattern using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) in patients with moderate or severe basilar artery (BA) atherosclerosis stenosis. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven patients (33 symptomatic patients and 24 asymptomatic patients) were recruited for 3.0 T HRMRI scan; all of them had >50% stenosis on the BA. The intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), contrast-enhancement pattern, and distribution of BA plaques were compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Factors potentially associated with posterior ischemic stroke were calculated by multivariate analyses. Results. Enhancement of BA plaque was more frequently observed in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (27/33, 81.8% versus 11/24, 45.8%; ). In multivariate regression analysis, plaque enhancement (OR = 7.193; 95% CI: 1.880–27.517; ) and smoking (OR = 4.402; 95% CI: 2.218–15.909; ) were found to be independent risk factors of posterior ischemic events in patients with BA stenosis >50%. Plaques were mainly distributed at the ventral site (39.3%) or involved more than two arcs (21.2%) in the symptomatic group but were mainly distributed at left (33.3%) and right (25.0%) sites in the asymptomatic group. Wanqian Wang, Qi Yang, Debiao Li, Zhaoyang Fan, Xiaoming Bi, Xiangying Du, Fang Wu, Ye Wu, and Kuncheng Li Copyright © 2017 Wanqian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Royal Jelly Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adherence and Reduces Excessive Inflammatory Responses in Human Epithelial Cells Sun, 17 Sep 2017 08:25:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/3191752/ Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and causes respiratory infection especially in elderly patients. Royal jelly has been used worldwide as a traditional remedy and as a nutrient; however, the effect against P. aeruginosa is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze antibacterial, antiadherent, and anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly against P. aeruginosa. Wild-type strain PAO1 and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were used for antibacterial assay and antiadherent assay to abiotic surface and epithelial cells, which are pharynx (Detroit 562) and lung (NCI-H292) epithelial cells. In anti-inflammatory assay, epithelial cells were pretreated with royal jelly before bacterial exposure to investigate its inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α/CCL20 overproduction. Although royal jelly did not have antibacterial activity at concentration of 50% w/v, antiadherent activity was confirmed on the abiotic surface and epithelial cells under concentration of 25%. Pretreatment with royal jelly significantly inhibited overproduction of IL-8 and CCL20 from both cells. These results demonstrated that royal jelly inhibits P. aeruginosa adherence and protects epithelial cells from excessive inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggested that royal jelly may be a useful supplement as complementary and alternative medicine for preventing respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Heni Susilowati, Keiji Murakami, Hiromichi Yumoto, Takashi Amoh, Kouji Hirao, Katsuhiko Hirota, Takashi Matsuo, and Yoichiro Miyake Copyright © 2017 Heni Susilowati et al. All rights reserved. A Multiorgan Segmentation Model for CT Volumes via Full Convolution-Deconvolution Network Sun, 17 Sep 2017 08:03:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6941306/ We propose a model with two-stage process for abdominal segmentation on CT volumes. First, in order to capture the details of organs, a full convolution-deconvolution network (FCN-DecNet) is constructed with multiple new unpooling, deconvolutional, and fusion layers. Then, we optimize the coarse segmentation results of FCN-DecNet by multiscale weights probabilistic atlas (MS-PA), which uses spatial and intensity characteristic of atlases. Our coarse-fine model takes advantage of intersubject variability, spatial location, and gray information of CT volumes to minimize the error of segmentation. Finally, using our model, we extract liver, spleen, and kidney with Dice index of 90.1 ± 1%, 89.0 ± 1.6%, and 89.0 ± 1.3%, respectively. Yangzi Yang, Huiyan Jiang, and Qingjiao Sun Copyright © 2017 Yangzi Yang et al. All rights reserved. A Survey of the Use of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms in Electron Microscopy Sun, 17 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6482567/ One of the key steps in Electron Microscopy is the tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) map of the specimen being studied from a set of two-dimensional (2D) projections acquired at the microscope. This tomographic reconstruction may be performed with different reconstruction algorithms that can be grouped into several large families: direct Fourier inversion methods, back-projection methods, Radon methods, or iterative algorithms. In this review, we focus on the latter family of algorithms, explaining the mathematical rationale behind the different algorithms in this family as they have been introduced in the field of Electron Microscopy. We cover their use in Single Particle Analysis (SPA) as well as in Electron Tomography (ET). C. O. S. Sorzano, J. Vargas, J. Otón, J. M. de la Rosa-Trevín, J. L. Vilas, M. Kazemi, R. Melero, L. del Caño, J. Cuenca, P. Conesa, J. Gómez-Blanco, R. Marabini, and J. M. Carazo Copyright © 2017 C. O. S. Sorzano et al. All rights reserved.