BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable β-Mannanase from Bacillus subtilis BE-91: Potential Application in Inflammatory Diseases Thu, 27 Oct 2016 15:57:59 +0000 -mannanase has shown compelling biological functions because of its regulatory roles in metabolism, inflammation, and oxidation. This study separated and purified the -mannanase from Bacillus subtilis BE-91, which is a powerful hemicellulose-degrading bacterium using a “two-step” method comprising ultrafiltration and gel chromatography. The purified -mannanase (about 28.2 kDa) showed high specific activity (79, 859.2 IU/mg). The optimum temperature and pH were 65°C and 6.0, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme was highly stable at temperatures up to 70°C and pH 4.5–7.0. The -mannanase activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Al3+ and strongly inhibited by Ba2+ and Pb2+. and values for locust bean gum were 7.14 mg/mL and 107.5 μmol/min/mL versus 1.749 mg/mL and 33.45 µmol/min/mL for Konjac glucomannan, respectively. Therefore, -mannanase purified by this work shows stability at high temperatures and in weakly acidic or neutral environments. Based on such data, the -mannanase will have potential applications as a dietary supplement in treatment of inflammatory processes. Lifeng Cheng, Shengwen Duan, Xiangyuan Feng, Ke Zheng, Qi Yang, and Zhengchu Liu Copyright © 2016 Lifeng Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Portosystemic Shunt by Simulation Using an Electric Circuit Thu, 27 Oct 2016 14:16:56 +0000 Portosystemic shunt (PSS) without a definable cause is a rare condition, and most of the studies on this topic are small series or based on case reports. Moreover, no firm agreement has been reached on the definition and classification of various forms of PSS, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the management. The blood flow can be seen very similar to an electric current, governed by Ohm’s law. The simulation of PSS using an electric circuit, combined with the interpretation of reported management results, can provide intuitive insights into the underlying mechanism of PSS development. In this article, we have built a model of PSS using electric circuit symbols and explained clinical manifestations as well as the possible mechanisms underlying a PSS formation. Moonhwan Kim and Keon-Young Lee Copyright © 2016 Moonhwan Kim and Keon-Young Lee. All rights reserved. Early Inflammatory Response following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rabbits Using USPIO- and Gd-Enhanced MRI Thu, 27 Oct 2016 11:57:18 +0000 Purpose. To monitor the inflammatory response (IR) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) before and after the rehabilitation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rabbits using USPIO- and Gd-enhanced MRI. Materials and Methods. Twenty white big-eared rabbits with mild TBI (mTBI) were randomly and equally divided into four groups. Rabbits were sacrificed for the brain specimens immediately after the last MRI-monitoring. Sequences were tse-T1WI, tse-T2WI, Gd-T1WI, and USPIO-T1WI. Dynamical MRI presentations were evaluated and compared with pathological findings for each group. Results. Twenty-four hours after injury, all rabbits displayed high signal foci on T2WI, while only 55% lesions could be found on Gd-T1WI and none on USPIO-T1WI. The lesions were enhanced on Gd-T1WI in 100% subjects after 48 h and the enhancement sizes augmented to the largest after 72 h. At the time point of 72 h after TBI, 90% lesions were enhanced by USPIO. Five days after injury, 19 lesions showed decreased Gd-enhancement and one disappeared; however, USPIO-enhancement became larger than before. Pathological findings showed microglias slightly appeared in dense leukocytes at 48 h, but became the dominant inflammatory cells after five days. Conclusions. Dynamic IR following injury could be monitored by combination of Gd- and USPIO-MRI in mTBI rabbits. Lin Ouyang, Si Zeng, Gang Zheng, and Guang Ming Lu Copyright © 2016 Lin Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Apolipoprotein E Gene Variants and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 27 Oct 2016 11:40:00 +0000 Objectives. Apo E genes involved in lipoprotein synthesis and metabolism are considered one of the candidates to CHD. However, the results remain conflicting. Methods. We performed this meta-analysis based on 30 published studies including 11,804 CHD patients and 17,713 controls. Results. Compared with the wild genotype E3/3, the variant genotypes ApoEE3/4 and E4/4 were associated with 22% and 45% increased risk of CHD, respectively (E3/4 versus E3/3: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.15–1.29; E4/4 versus E3/3: OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.23–1.71). Besides, compared with ε3 allele, carriers with the ε4 allele had a 46% increased risk of CHD (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.28–1.66), while the ε2 had no significantly decreased risk of CHD. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, ε4 had a 25% increased risk of CHD in Caucasians (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.11–1.41), and the effects were more evident in Mongolians (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.89–2.77). The ε2 allele had a decreased risk of CHD in Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74–0.96), but not in Mongolians. Conclusions. The analysis suggested that ApoEε4 mutation was associated with the increased risk of CHD, while ApoEε2 allele had a decreased risk of CHD just in Caucasians. Min Xu, Jun Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xu Ma, Qiaoyun Dai, Hong Zhi, Bei Wang, and Lina Wang Copyright © 2016 Min Xu et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Novel Inhibitors against Coactivator Associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1 Based on Virtual Screening and Biological Assays Thu, 27 Oct 2016 10:08:58 +0000 Overexpression of coactivator associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), a protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) family enzyme, is associated with various diseases including cancers. Consequently, the development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PRMTs has significant value for both research and therapeutic purposes. In this study, together with structure-based virtual screening with biochemical assays, two compounds DC_C11 and DC_C66 were identified as novel inhibitors of CARM1. Cellular studies revealed that the two inhibitors are cell membrane permeable and effectively blocked proliferation of cancer cells including HELA, K562, and MCF7. We further predicted the binding mode of these inhibitors through molecular docking analysis, which indicated that the inhibitors competitively occupied the binding site of the substrate and destroyed the protein-protein interactions between CARM1 and its substrates. Overall, this study has shed light on the development of small-molecule CARM1 inhibitors with novel scaffolds. Fei Ye, Weiyao Zhang, Wenchao Lu, Yiqian Xie, Hao Jiang, Jia Jin, and Cheng Luo Copyright © 2016 Fei Ye et al. All rights reserved. Intramyocardial Injection of siRNAs Can Efficiently Establish Myocardial Tissue-Specific Renalase Knockdown Mouse Model Thu, 27 Oct 2016 08:28:11 +0000 Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury will cause additional death of cardiomyocytes in ischaemic heart disease. Recent studies revealed that renalase was involved in the I/R injury. So, the myocardial tissue-specific knockdown mouse models were needed for the investigations of renalase. To establish the mouse models, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase was performed in mice. The wild distribution and high transfection efficiency of the siRNAs were approved. And the renalase expression was efficiently suppressed in myocardial tissue. Compared with the high cost, time consumption, and genetic compensation risk of the Cre/loxP technology, RNA interference (RNAi) technology is much cheaper and less time-consuming. Among the RNAi technologies, injection of siRNAs is safer than virus. And considering the properties of the I/R injury mouse models, the efficiency and durability of injection with siRNAs are acceptable for the studies. Altogether, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase is an economical, safe, and efficient method to establish myocardial tissue-specific renalase knockdown mouse models. Kun Huang, Ju Liu, Hui Zhang, Jiliang Wang, and Huili Li Copyright © 2016 Kun Huang et al. All rights reserved. Changes in the Expression of Biofilm-Associated Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Food-Environmental Isolates Subjected to Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants Thu, 27 Oct 2016 07:14:43 +0000 Sublethal concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain disinfectants are no longer effective in removing biofilms from abiotic surfaces and can even promote the formation of biofilms. Bacterial cells can probably adapt to these low concentrations of disinfectants and defend themselves by way of biofilm formation. In this paper, we report on three Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formers (strong B+++, moderate B++, and weak B+) that were cultivated with sub-MICs of commonly used disinfectants, ethanol or chloramine T, and quantified using Syto9 green fluorogenic nucleic acid stain. We demonstrate that 1.25–2.5% ethanol and 2500 μg/mL chloramine T significantly enhanced S. aureus biofilm formation. To visualize differences in biofilm compactness between S. aureus biofilms in control medium, 1.25% ethanol, or 2500 μg/mL chloramine T, scanning electron microscopy was used. To describe changes in abundance of surface-exposed proteins in ethanol- or chloramine T-treated biofilms, surface proteins were prepared using a novel trypsin shaving approach and quantified after dimethyl labeling by LC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS. Our data show that some proteins with adhesive functions and others with cell maintenance functions and virulence factor EsxA were significantly upregulated by both treatments. In contrast, immunoglobulin-binding protein A was significantly downregulated for both disinfectants. Significant differences were observed in the effect of the two disinfectants on the expression of surface proteins including some adhesins, foldase protein PrsA, and two virulence factors. Lenka Cincarova, Ondrej Polansky, Vladimir Babak, Pavel Kulich, and Petr Kralik Copyright © 2016 Lenka Cincarova et al. All rights reserved. Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate Modulates the Timing of Proinflammatory Macrophages in Bupivacaine-Injured Skeletal Muscles in Rats Thu, 27 Oct 2016 07:12:00 +0000 This study was designed to determine whether marine-derived proteins other than cod could have beneficial effects on inflammation following muscle injury. Macrophage and neutrophil densities were measured from bupivacaine-injured tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed isoenergetic diets containing either shrimp hydrolysate (Shr), casein hydrolysate (CaH), or whole casein (Ca). In this study, Shr reduced ED1+-macrophages at day 2 (), day 5 (), and day 14 after injury () compared with Ca, indicating faster resolution of inflammation in Shr. Except for day 2 after injury where Shr led to lower ED1+-macrophages compared with CaH (), both Shr and CaH responded similarly at days 5, 14, and 28 after injury. This findings suggest that beneficial effects of Shr on ED1+-cells might be related to generation of anti-inflammatory peptides through the hydrolysis process, in addition to its high content of anti-inflammatory amino acids. However, while increasing myofiber cross-sectional area in noninjured muscles compared with both Ca and CaH, Shr failed to have a positive effect in corresponding injured muscles. These data indicate that shrimp hydrolysate can facilitate resolution of inflammation after muscle injury mainly through modulating proinflammatory macrophage accumulation but have less effect on optimal recovery in terms of muscle mass and fiber size. Junio Dort, Nadine Leblanc, Piotr Bryl, Marie-Gil Fortin, Marie-Elise Carbonneau, Charles Lavigne, and Hélène Jacques Copyright © 2016 Junio Dort et al. All rights reserved. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors Thu, 27 Oct 2016 06:38:14 +0000 Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP), are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user’s sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest). Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples). Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features) for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. Roland Zemp, Matteo Tanadini, Stefan Plüss, Karin Schnüriger, Navrag B. Singh, William R. Taylor, and Silvio Lorenzetti Copyright © 2016 Roland Zemp et al. All rights reserved. Cone Beam X-Ray Luminescence Tomography Imaging Based on KA-FEM Method for Small Animals Thu, 27 Oct 2016 06:37:10 +0000 Cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography can realize fast X-ray luminescence tomography imaging with relatively low scanning time compared with narrow beam X-ray luminescence tomography. However, cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography suffers from an ill-posed reconstruction problem. First, the feasibility of experiments with different penetration and multispectra in small animal has been tested using nanophosphor material. Then, the hybrid reconstruction algorithm with KA-FEM method has been applied in cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography for small animals to overcome the ill-posed reconstruction problem, whose advantage and property have been demonstrated in fluorescence tomography imaging. The in vivo mouse experiment proved the feasibility of the proposed method. Dongmei Chen, Fanzhen Meng, Fengjun Zhao, and Cao Xu Copyright © 2016 Dongmei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Light-Induced Mycelial Brown Film Formation in Lentinula edodes Thu, 27 Oct 2016 06:12:57 +0000 Light-induced brown film (BF) formation by the vegetative mycelium of Lentinula edodes is important for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotype is still unclear. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis of mycelial BF formation in L. edodes was performed. Seventy-three protein spots with at least a twofold difference in abundance on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) maps were observed, and 52 of them were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS). These proteins were classified into the following functional categories: small molecule metabolic processes (39%), response to oxidative stress (5%), and organic substance catabolic processes (5%), followed by oxidation-reduction processes (3%), single-organism catabolic processes (3%), positive regulation of protein complex assembly (3%), and protein metabolic processes (3%). Interestingly, four of the proteins that were upregulated in response to light exposure were nucleoside diphosphate kinases. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic analysis of the mechanism of BF formation in L. edodes. Our data will provide a foundation for future detailed investigations of the proteins linked to BF formation. Li Hua Tang, Qi Tan, Da Peng Bao, Xue Hong Zhang, Hua Hua Jian, Yan Li, Rui heng Yang, and Ying Wang Copyright © 2016 Li Hua Tang et al. All rights reserved. Selection of Lipases for the Synthesis of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil and the Potential of Microwave Irradiation to Enhance the Reaction Rate Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:59:25 +0000 The present study deals with the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas L.) with ethanol in a solvent-free system. Seven commercial lipase preparations immobilized by covalent attachment on epoxy-polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol composite (epoxy-SiO2-PVA) were tested as biocatalysts. Among them, immobilized lipases from Pseudomonas fluorescens (lipase AK) and Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS) were the most active biocatalysts in biodiesel synthesis, reaching ethyl ester yields (FAEE) of 91.1 and 98.3% at 72 h of reaction, respectively. The latter biocatalyst exhibited similar performance compared to Novozym® 435. Purified biodiesel was characterized by different techniques. Transesterification reaction carried out under microwave irradiation exhibited higher yield and productivity than conventional heating. The operational stability of immobilized lipase PS was determined in repeated batch runs under conventional and microwave heating systems, revealing half-life times of 430.4 h and 23.5 h, respectively. Livia T. A. Souza, Adriano A. Mendes, and Heizir F. de Castro Copyright © 2016 Livia T. A. Souza et al. All rights reserved. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania Wed, 26 Oct 2016 14:22:32 +0000 The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers’ immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority. Larisa Ivanescu, Ilie Bodale, Simin-Aysel Florescu, Constantin Roman, Dumitru Acatrinei, and Liviu Miron Copyright © 2016 Larisa Ivanescu et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Associations between XPC Gene Polymorphisms and Neuroblastoma Susceptibility in a Chinese Population Wed, 26 Oct 2016 14:03:35 +0000 Neuroblastoma is one of the most malignant solid tumors in infants and young children. No more than 40% of neuroblastoma patients can survive for longer than five years after it has been diagnosed. XPC protein is a pivotal factor that recognizes DNA damage and starts up the nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. This makes up the first group to defend against the cancer. Previous studies have identified that XPC gene polymorphisms were associated with various types of cancer. However, the associations between XPC gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk have not yet been studied. We investigated the associations between three XPC gene polymorphisms (rs2228001 A>C, rs2228000 C>T, and rs2229090 G>C) and neuroblastoma risk with 256 neuroblastoma patients and 531 healthy controls in a Chinese Han population. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to access the association between these three polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk. No significant association was detected between these three polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk in the overall analysis as well as in the stratification analysis. These results suggest that none of these three polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of neuroblastoma in the Chinese Han population. Jintao Zheng, Ruizhong Zhang, Jinhong Zhu, Fenghua Wang, Tianyou Yang, Jing He, and Huimin Xia Copyright © 2016 Jintao Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Error-Correcting Output Codes in Classification of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colony Images Wed, 26 Oct 2016 13:26:12 +0000 The purpose of this paper is to examine how well the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) colony images can be classified using error-correcting output codes (ECOC). Our image dataset includes hiPSC colony images from three classes (bad, semigood, and good) which makes our classification task a multiclass problem. ECOC is a general framework to model multiclass classification problems. We focus on four different coding designs of ECOC and apply to each one of them -Nearest Neighbor (-NN) searching, naïve Bayes, classification tree, and discriminant analysis variants classifiers. We use Scaled Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) based features in classification. The best accuracy (62.4%) is obtained with ternary complete ECOC coding design and -NN classifier (standardized Euclidean distance measure and inverse weighting). The best result is comparable with our earlier research. The quality identification of hiPSC colony images is an essential problem to be solved before hiPSCs can be used in practice in large-scale. ECOC methods examined are promising techniques for solving this challenging problem. Henry Joutsijoki, Markus Haponen, Jyrki Rasku, Katriina Aalto-Setälä, and Martti Juhola Copyright © 2016 Henry Joutsijoki et al. All rights reserved. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision Wed, 26 Oct 2016 12:25:46 +0000 In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method. Bineng Zhong, Shengnan Pan, Hongbo Zhang, Tian Wang, Jixiang Du, Duansheng Chen, and Liujuan Cao Copyright © 2016 Bineng Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:57:17 +0000 Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. Jacyra Antunes dos Santos Gomes, Juliana Félix-Silva, Júlia Morais Fernandes, Juliano Geraldo Amaral, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, and Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa Copyright © 2016 Jacyra Antunes dos Santos Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Bone Resorption Rates after Intraoral Block Bone and Guided Bone Regeneration Augmentation for the Reconstruction of Horizontally Deficient Maxillary Alveolar Ridges Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:37:58 +0000 Purpose. Bone atrophy after tooth loss may leave insufficient bone for implant placement. We compared volumetric changes after autogenous ramus block bone grafting (RBG) or guided bone regeneration (GBR) in horizontally deficient maxilla before implant placement. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, volumetric changes at RBG or GBR graft sites were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. The primary outcome variable was the volumetric resorption rate. Secondary outcomes were bone gain, graft success, and implant insertion torque. Results. Twenty-four patients (28 grafted sites) were included (GBR, 15; RBG, 13). One patient (RBG) suffered mucosal dehiscence at the recipient site 6 weeks after surgery, which healed spontaneously. Mean volume reduction in the GBR and RBG groups was 12.48 ± 2.67% and 7.20 ± 1.40%, respectively. GBR resulted in significantly more bone resorption than RBG (). Mean horizontal bone gain and width after healing were significantly greater in the GBR than in the RBG group ( and 0.005, resp.). Implant torque was similar between groups (). Conclusions. Both RBG and GBR hard-tissue augmentation techniques provide adequate bone graft volume and stability for implant insertion. However, GBR causes greater resorption at maxillary augmented sites than RBG, which clinicians should consider during treatment planning. B. Alper Gultekin, Elcin Bedeloglu, T. Emre Kose, and Eitan Mijiritsky Copyright © 2016 B. Alper Gultekin et al. All rights reserved. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models Wed, 26 Oct 2016 08:39:20 +0000 Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid. Yong-Han Hong, Ya-Ling Huang, Yao-Cheng Liu, and Pi-Jen Tsai Copyright © 2016 Yong-Han Hong et al. All rights reserved. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale Wed, 26 Oct 2016 08:05:26 +0000 Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (). A value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) () and the lowest ones in anxiety (). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of for PME and for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (), which is different from other Colombian women (). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct. Alvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Katherin Portela-Buelvas, Heidi C. Oviedo, Edwin Herazo, and Adalberto Campo-Arias Copyright © 2016 Alvaro Monterrosa-Castro et al. All rights reserved. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Wed, 26 Oct 2016 07:12:04 +0000 Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients. Pusa Nela Gaje, Raluca Amalia Ceausu, Adriana Jitariu, Stefan Ioan Stratul, Laura-Cristina Rusu, Ramona Amina Popovici, and Marius Raica Copyright © 2016 Pusa Nela Gaje et al. All rights reserved. Jet Ventilation during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Adults: A Focused Review Wed, 26 Oct 2016 07:10:00 +0000 The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma. High frequency jet ventilation allows adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal even in cases of tracheal stenosis up to frequencies of around 150 min−1; however, in an in vivo animal model, high frequency jet ventilation along with normal frequency jet ventilation (superimposed high frequency jet ventilation) has been shown to improve oxygenation by increasing lung volume and carbon dioxide removal by increasing tidal volume across a large spectrum of frequencies without increasing barotrauma. General anesthesia with a continuous, intravenous, short-acting agent is safe and effective during rigid bronchoscopy procedures. Laurie Putz, Alain Mayné, and Anne-Sophie Dincq Copyright © 2016 Laurie Putz et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Targeted Temperature Management in Adult Patients Resuscitated from Nonshockable Cardiac Arrests: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 25 Oct 2016 15:52:21 +0000 Routine targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adult patients with return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. However, the role of targeted temperature management in patients resuscitated from nonshockable cardiac arrests remains uncertain. We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of targeted temperature management in this population. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed for studies published between January 2005 and March 2016, in which targeted temperature management was compared with standard care or normothermia for adult patients resuscitated from nonshockable cardiac arrests. A total of 25 trials that included 5715 patients were identified from 10985 relevant papers. Pooled data showed that targeted temperature management not only associated with improved short-term survival (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.28–1.57) and neurological function (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39–1.91) but also associated with improved long-term survival (RR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.27–2.12) and neurological recovery (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07–1.90) in observational cohort studies. However, more frequent infectious complications were reported in hypothermia-treated patients (RR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.26–1.70) and the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. Lijuan Song, Liang Wei, Lei Zhang, Yubao Lu, Kaifa Wang, and Yongqin Li Copyright © 2016 Lijuan Song et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii by Comparative Genomics Approaches Tue, 25 Oct 2016 14:50:20 +0000 Cotton is one of the most important economic crops and the primary source of natural fiber and is an important protein source for animal feed. The complete nuclear and chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of G. raimondii are already available but not mitochondria. Here, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence of G. raimondii into a circular genome of length of 676,078 bp and performed comparative analyses with other higher plants. The genome contains 39 protein-coding genes, 6 rRNA genes, and 25 tRNA genes. We also identified four larger repeats (63.9 kb, 10.6 kb, 9.1 kb, and 2.5 kb) in this mt genome, which may be active in intramolecular recombination in the evolution of cotton. Strikingly, nearly all of the G. raimondii mt genome has been transferred to nucleus on Chr1, and the transfer event must be very recent. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that G. raimondii, as a member of Malvaceae, is much closer to another cotton (G. barbadense) than other rosids, and the clade formed by two Gossypium species is sister to Brassicales. The G. raimondii mt genome may provide a crucial foundation for evolutionary analysis, molecular biology, and cytoplasmic male sterility in cotton and other higher plants. Changwei Bi, Andrew H. Paterson, Xuelin Wang, Yiqing Xu, Dongyang Wu, Yanshu Qu, Anna Jiang, Qiaolin Ye, and Ning Ye Copyright © 2016 Changwei Bi et al. All rights reserved. Multisensory Integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with Active Movement Tue, 25 Oct 2016 13:44:33 +0000 Improving the sense of immersion is one of the core issues in virtual reality. Perceptual illusions of ownership can be perceived over a virtual body in a multisensory virtual reality environment. Rubber Hand and Virtual Hand Illusions showed that body ownership can be manipulated by applying suitable visual and tactile stimulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of multisensory integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with active movement. A virtual xylophone playing system which can interactively provide synchronous visual, tactile, and auditory stimulation was constructed. We conducted two experiments regarding different movement conditions and different sensory stimulations. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration with free active movement can improve the sense of immersion in virtual reality. Woong Choi, Liang Li, Satoru Satoh, and Kozaburo Hachimura Copyright © 2016 Woong Choi et al. All rights reserved. Acute Mountain Sickness Symptoms Depend on Normobaric versus Hypobaric Hypoxia Tue, 25 Oct 2016 13:36:28 +0000 Acute mountain sickness (AMS), characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitude, is exacerbated by exercise and can be disabling. Although AMS is observed in both normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH), recent evidence suggests that NH and HH produce different physiological responses. We evaluated whether AMS symptoms were different in NH and HH during the initial stages of exposure and if the assessment tool mattered. Seventy-two 8 h exposures to normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH were experienced by 36 subjects. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) and Lake Louise Self-report (LLS) were administered, resulting in a total of 360 assessments, with each subject answering the questionnaire 5 times during each of their 2 exposure days. Classification tree analysis indicated that symptoms contributing most to AMS were different in NH (namely, feeling sick and shortness of breath) compared to HH (characterized most by feeling faint, appetite loss, light headedness, and dim vision). However, the differences were not detected using the LLS. These results suggest that during the initial hours of exposure (1) AMS in HH may be a qualitatively different experience than in NH and (2) NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. Dana M. DiPasquale, Gary E. Strangman, N. Stuart Harris, and Stephen R. Muza Copyright © 2016 Dana M. DiPasquale et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Tactile Sensitivity on Structural Variability of Digit Forces during Stable Precision Grip Tue, 25 Oct 2016 13:31:14 +0000 This study investigated the effects of fingertip tactile sensitivity on the structural variability of thumb and index finger forces during stable precision grip. Thirty right-handed healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Transient perturbation of tactile afferents was achieved by wrapping up the distal pads of the thumb or index finger with transparent polyethylene films. The time-dependent structure of each digit force and the variability of interdigit force correlation were examined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), respectively. Results showed that the tactile sensitivity affected of the vertical shear force ( = 6.814, ) and of ( = 16.440, ). No significant difference was observed in or of the normal forces produced by the thumb or index finger. These results suggested that with blurred tactile sensory inputs the central nervous system might decrease the vertical shear force flexibility and increase the interdigit shear force coupling in order to guarantee a stable grip control of an object against gravity. This study shed light on the feedback and feed-forward strategies involved in digit force control and the role of SA-II afferent fibers in regulation of vertical shear force variability for precision grip. Ke Li, Na Wei, and Shouwei Yue Copyright © 2016 Ke Li et al. All rights reserved. Isoprene Production on Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Peanut Hull Using Different Pretreatment Methods Tue, 25 Oct 2016 13:09:50 +0000 The present study is about the use of peanut hull for isoprene production. In this study, two pretreatment methods, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) and popping, were employed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, which could destroy the lignocellulosic structure and accordingly improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is proven that the isoprene production on enzymatic hydrolysate with HPAC pretreatment is about 1.9-fold higher than that of popping pretreatment. Moreover, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the amount and category of inhibitors such as formic acid, acetic acid, and HMF were assayed and were varied in different enzymatic hydrolysates, which may be the reason leading to a decrease in isoprene production during fermentation. To further increase the isoprene yield, the enzymatic hydrolysate of HPAC was detoxified by activated carbon. As a result, using the detoxified enzymatic hydrolysate as the carbon source, the engineered strain YJM21 could accumulate 297.5 mg/L isoprene, which accounted for about 90% of isoprene production by YJM21 fermented on pure glucose (338.6 mg/L). This work is thought to be the first attempt on isoprene production by E. coli using peanut hull as the feedstock. More importantly, it also shows the prospect of peanut hull to be considered as an alternative feedstock for bio-based chemicals or biofuels production due to its easy access and high polysaccharide content. Sumeng Wang, Ruichao Li, Xiaohua Yi, Tigao Fang, Jianming Yang, and Hyeun-Jong Bae Copyright © 2016 Sumeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Detection of Pectoral Muscle Region for Computer-Aided Diagnosis Using MIAS Mammograms Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:18:39 +0000 The computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed to help radiologists with the early detection of breast cancer. This system provides objective and accurate information to reduce the misdiagnosis of the disease. In mammography, the pectoral muscle region is used as an index to compare the symmetry between the left and right images in the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The pectoral muscle segmentation is necessary for the detection of microcalcification or mass because the pectoral muscle has a similar pixel intensity as that of lesions, which affects the results of automatic detection. In this study, the mammographic image analysis society database (MIAS, 322 cases) was used for detecting the pectoral muscle segmentation. The pectoral muscle was detected by using the morphological method and the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. We evaluated the detected pectoral muscle region and compared the manual segmentation with the automatic segmentation. The results showed 92.2% accuracy. We expect that the proposed method improves the detection accuracy of breast cancer lesions using a CAD system. Woong Bae Yoon, Ji Eun Oh, Eun Young Chae, Hak Hee Kim, Soo Yeul Lee, and Kwang Gi Kim Copyright © 2016 Woong Bae Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 and the Identification of Functional NRPS Genes for Siderophore Production Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:09:56 +0000 Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of rhizosphere bacteria that promote plant growth. Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 is a member of PGPR that produces siderophores. The draft genome sequence of MTQ3 has been reported. Here, we analyzed the genome sequence of MTQ3 and performed a comparative genome analysis of four sequenced Delftia strains, revealing genetic relationships among these strains. In addition, genes responsible for bacteriocin and nonribosomal peptide synthesis were detected in the genomes of each strain. To reveal the functions of NRPS genes in siderophore production in D. tsuruhatensis MTQ3, three NRPS genes were knocked out to obtain the three mutants MTQ3-Δ1941, MTQ3-Δ1945, and MTQ3-Δ1946, which were compared with the wild-type strain. In qualitative and quantitative analyses using CAS assay, the mutants failed to produce siderophores. Accordingly, the NRPS genes in MTQ3 were functionally related to siderophore production. These results clarify one mechanism by which plant growth is promoted in MTQ3 and have important applications in agricultural production. Haimeng Guo, Yanan Yang, Kai Liu, Wenfeng Xu, Jianyong Gao, Hairong Duan, Binghai Du, Yanqin Ding, and Chengqiang Wang Copyright © 2016 Haimeng Guo et al. All rights reserved.