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Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Diabetes, Hypertension, and Heart Failure Patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast EthiopiaRead the full article
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Endogenous Estrogen Influences Predator Odor-Induced Impairment of Cognitive and Social Behaviors in Aromatase Gene Deficiency Mice
Epidemiological studies have suggested that traumatic stress increases vulnerability to various mental disorders, such as dementia and psychiatric disorders. While women are more vulnerable than men to depression and anxiety, it is unclear whether endogenous estrogens are responsible for the underlying sex-specific mechanisms. In this study, the aromatase gene heterozygous (Ar+/-) mice were used as an endogenous estrogen deficiency model and age- and sex-matched wild type mice (WT) as controls to study the predator odor 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline- (TMT-) induced short- and long-term cognitive and social behavior impairments. In addition, the changes in brain regional neurotransmitters and their associations with TMT-induced changes in behaviors were further investigated in these animals. Our results showed TMT induced immediate fear response in both Ar+/- and WT mice regardless of sexes. TMT induced an acute impairment of novel object recognition memory and long-term social behavior impairment in WT mice, particularly in females, while Ar+/- mice showed impaired novel object recognition in both sexes and TMT-elevated social behaviors, particularly in males. TMT failed to induce changes in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test in both groups. TMT resulted in a slight increase of DOPAC/DA ratio in the cortex and a significant elevation of this ratio in the striatum of WT mice. In addition, the ratio of HIAA/5-HT was significantly elevated in the cortex of TMT-treated WT mice, which was not found in TMT-treated Ar+/- mice. Taken together, our results indicate that TMT exposure can cause cognitive and social behavior impairments as well as change catecholamine metabolism in WT mice, and endogenous estrogen deficiency might desensitize the behavioral and neurochemical responses to TMT in Ar+/- mice.
Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Gene Polymorphisms with Mild Cognitive Impairment Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (rs1801133) gene polymorphisms are related to a growing risk of Alzheimer’s disease; however, whether this association applies to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Objective. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) gene variants to the risk of MCI. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched from their inception to March 21, 2021, with language restricted to English or Chinese. We used fixed or random effects to examine the association between MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) gene variants and MCI susceptibility. Forest plots of pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were generated. Results. Eight articles with 2,175 participants were included in the present meta-analysis. There was no significant association between MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) gene variants and MCI susceptibility under the allelic (OR, 1.318; 95% CI, 0.964–1.801; ), dominant (OR, 1.296; 95% CI, 0.925–1.817; ), recessive (OR, 1.397; 95% CI, 0.845–2.312; ), heterozygous (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 0.855–1.243; ), or homozygous (OR, 1.506; 95% CI, 0.850–2.667; ) models. Conclusion. The results suggest that MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) gene polymorphisms are not associated with MCI susceptibility. However, large-scale studies covering various factors are required.
Effect of Acupuncture on Cognitive Function of Insomnia Patients Compared with Drugs: A Protocol for Meta-analysis and Systematic Review
Insomnia, one of the most common sleep disorders, is thought to have an adverse effect on cognitive function. At the same time, people with cognitive dysfunction are more prone to insomnia. At present, pharmacotherapy is the main treatment for insomnia, but there are some shortcomings such as poor long-term efficacy and potential dependence. There is some evidence that acupuncture has some advantages in alleviating insomnia and improving cognitive function. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of acupuncture and drugs on cognitive function in patients with insomnia and evaluating the efficacy and safety of these two interventions, providing strong evidence for clinical decision-making. The study will retrieve eight major databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, SinoMed, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Dissertations, conference papers, and ongoing experiments will also be retrieved for supplement. Literature screening and data extraction will be completed by two authors independently (JJ and X-QW). If there were any disagreements, they would be discussed or referred to a third person for adjudication (W-ZW). Authors will use Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess the included studies. The Review Manager Statistical (RevMan) software is used to conduct the statistical process of meta-analysis, and funnel plot is used to evaluate reporting biases. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Profiler can be used to be aware of the quality of evidence.
Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Different Germ Layer-Derived Adult Stem Cells in the Past Decade
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are some of the most common types of traumatic lesions affecting the nervous system. Although the peripheral nervous system has a higher regenerative ability than the central nervous system, delayed treatment is associated with disturbances in both distal sensory and functional abilities. Over the past decades, adult stem cell-based therapies for peripheral nerve injuries have drawn attention from researchers. This is because various stem cells can promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries by differentiating into neural-line cells, secreting various neurotrophic factors, and regulating the activity of in situ Schwann cells (SCs). This article reviewed research from the past 10 years on the role of stem cells in the repair of PNIs. We concluded that adult stem cell-based therapies promote the regeneration of PNI in various ways.
Analgesic Efficacy of Etoricoxib following Third Molar Surgery: A Meta-analysis
Background. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical efficacy of etoricoxib in comparison with traditional NSAIDs for postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Methods. The quality of studies found in PubMed and Google Scholar was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. Data on total consumption of rescue analgesics, number of patients using rescue analgesics, global assessment of study treatments, and adverse effects were extracted exclusively from high-quality clinical trials. Each meta-analysis was performed with the Review Manager Software 5.3 for Windows. Results. The qualitative analysis showed that etoricoxib has better analgesic activity when compared with ibuprofen (2 clinical trials) and diclofenac (1 clinical trial). A similar analgesic efficacy between etoricoxib and nonselective Cox-2 NSAIDs was informed in 3/8 studies (2 compared to ibuprofen and 1 to naproxen sodium). Moreover, the number of patients requiring rescue analgesics in the postoperative period showed a statistical difference in favor of etoricoxib when compared to NSAIDs. Conclusion. Etoricoxib significantly reduces the number of patients needing rescue analgesics compared to NSAIDs after third molar surgery.
Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Alkaloids on PC12 Cell Damage Induced by Aβ25-35
Background. Aβ deposition abnormally in the mitochondria can damage the mitochondrial respiratory chain and activate the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway, resulting in AD-like symptoms. Objective. To observe the protective effects of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids (DNLA) on Aβ25-35-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells explore its possible protective mechanisms. Methods. PC12 cells were treated with DNLA with different concentrations (0.035 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L) for 6 h, followed by administration with Aβ25-35 (10 μM) for 24 h. MTT assay and flow cytometer observe the effect of DNLA on Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of PC12 cell. Based on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to study the antiapoptotic effect of DNLA on this model and its relationship with oxidative stress, flow cytometer detected the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ELISA kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) content in cells. The JC-1 fluorescent staining observed the effect of DNLA on the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with inverted immunofluorescence microscopy. Western blot was used to detect the levels of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related protein and its major downstream proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved-caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-3. Results. DNLA can significantly improve the viability and apoptosis rate of PC12 cell damage induced by Aβ25-35. It also can restore the reduced intracellular ROS content and MMP, while SOD activity and GSH content increase significantly. The expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax, cleaved-caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-3 decreased when the Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it can significantly inhibit the apoptosis of PC12 cell damage induced by Aβ25-35. The mechanism may reduce the level of cellular oxidative stress and thus inhibit the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway.