Propofol Causes Consciousness Loss by Affecting GABA-A Receptor in the Nucleus Basalis of RatsRead the full article
Behavioural Neurology provides a platform for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry.
Behavioural Neurology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
False Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease
Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) not only are suffering from amnesia but also are prone to memory distortions, such as experiencing detailed and vivid recollections of episodic events that have never been encountered (i.e., false memories). To describe and explain these distortions, we offer a review to synthesize current knowledge on false memory in AD into a framework allowing for better understanding of the taxonomy and phenomenology of false memories and of the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie false memory formation in AD. According to this review, certain phenomenological characteristics of memories (e.g., high emotional load, high vividness, or high familiarity) result in misattributions in AD. More specifically, this review proposes that generalized decline in cognitive control and inhibition in AD may result in difficulties in suppressing irrelevant information during memory monitoring, especially when irrelevant (i.e., false) information is characterized by high emotion, vividness, or familiarity. This review also proposes that binding deficits in AD decrease the ability to retrieve relevant contextual details, leading to source monitoring errors and false memories. In short, this review depicts how phenomenological characteristics of memories and failures of monitoring during retrieval contribute to the occurrence of false memory in AD.
Personality Factors and Subjective Cognitive Decline: The FACEHBI Cohort
Individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have the perception of memory problems without showing impairment on standardized cognitive tests. SCD has been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuroticism and openness personality dimensions have also been associated with SCD and AD. From the aforementioned, we aimed to ascertain whether the dimensions and traits defined by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) differentiate between individuals with SCD and the general population (GP). A total of 187 participants with SCD and mild affective symptomatology recruited from the Fundació ACE Health Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) project completed the ZKPQ. Each SCD participant was matched by sex and age to an individual from the GP. Both samples included 71 men and 116 women with a mean age of 65.9 years. Results indicated that the SCD group scored significantly lower in Neuroticism-Anxiety and Activity than the GP group. Only Activity remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that individuals with SCD have a low energy level and a dislike for an active and busy life. From the obtained results and knowing additional physical activities may delay the conversion from normal aging to cognitive impairment, we encourage promoting this lifestyle in daily routine. The assessment of personality may result in an SCD plus feature, which may serve as an upgrading strategy for future research.
Potential Benefits of Physical Activity in MCI and Dementia
Physical activity improves overall health and reduces the risk of many negative health outcomes and may be effective in improving cognition, independent functioning, and psychological health in older adults. Given the evidence linking physical activity with improvements in various aspects of health and functioning, interventions exploring pathways for decreasing risk of dementia in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and improving outcomes for those with dementia are of critical importance. The present review highlights the work examining physical activity interventions in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of physical activity for individuals experiencing cognitive decline. The primary focus is on aerobic exercise as this is the main intervention in the literature. Our review supports the thesis that physical activity can promote healthy aging in terms of cognition, independent functioning, and psychological health for individuals experiencing cognitive decline. Specifically, physical activity improves cognition, especially executive functioning and memory in MCI, independent functioning in MCI and dementia, and psychological health in dementia. Given that benefits of physical activity have been observed across these domains, such interventions provide an avenue for preventing decline and/or mitigating impairment across several domains of functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia and may be recommended (and adjusted) for patients across a range of settings, including medical and mental health settings. Further implications for clinical intervention and future directions for research are discussed.
Associations between Age-Related Changes in the Core Vestibular Projection Pathway and Balance Ability: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
Objective. We investigated the changes of the vestibulospinal tract (VST) and parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and relation to balance between old and young healthy adults. Methods. This study recruited eleven old adults (6 males, 5 females; mean age years) and 12 young adults (7 males, 5 females; mean age years). The lateral and medial VST and PIVC were reconstructed using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume were measured. The six-minute walk test (6-MWT), the timed up and go test (TUG), and the Berg balance scale (BBS) were conducted. Spatiotemporal parameters during tandem gait and values of sway during one-leg standing using the wearable sensors were measured. All parameters between two groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and independent -test. Results. Statistically significant decrease in old adults was detected in the tract volume of lateral () and medial VST () and PIVC (). A significant decrease in FA of lateral VST () and MD of medial VST () was seen in old adults. Stride length () and velocity () during tandem gait in old adults were significantly decreased. 6MWT () showed significant decrease, while TUG () showed significant increase in old adults. However, mean BSS () was nonsignificantly different. In eyes-open condition during one-leg standing, all parameters except for reciprocal compensatory index (RCI) values were significantly decreased in old adults. The RCI in the anteroposterior (AP) direction () was increased in old adults; however, the mediolateral direction () was nonsignificantly different between the two groups. In eye-closed condition, the changes of ankle () and hip () sway and the center of mass in the AP direction () showed to be significantly higher in old adults than in young adults. Conclusion. The results suggested that there was a relationship between DTI parameters in the vestibular neural pathway and balance according to aging.
Framingham Risk Stratification of Middle-Aged Migraineurs
Introduction. Migraine is a common primary headache disorder involving about 10-15% of the whole population. Several epidemiological and prospective studies showed a link between migraine (especially migraine with aura) and cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Objectives. We prospectively analyzed the data of vascular event-free middle-aged patients with migraine who were referred to our Headache Clinic between 01/2014 and 01/2018. Framingham 10-year risk were calculated; covariates included in the analysis were age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, current smoking, and diabetes status. Results. Total of 1037 patients were screened and 221 were selected, 161 were women (mean age years) and 60 were men (mean age years). 25 patients (11.3%) were labelled as having low risk, 162 patients (73.3%) had moderate risk, and 34 patients (15.4%) had high or very high risk. Blood pressure and lipid targets were reached in 73% and in 49% in the moderate risk and in 53% and 12% in the high risk/very high risk groups, respectively. Migraine with aura (MA) was associated significantly higher cardiovascular risk profile compared with migraine without aura (MO). About one-third of our nondiabetic patients had fasting blood glucose above the normal levels. 24 patients (mean age years) were diabetic. Mean blood pressure was 149/85 Hgmm, mean choleterol was 5.11 mmol/l, and mean LDL was 2.93 mmol/l in this subgroup, respectively, which do not fall within the recommended targets. Conclusion. Our article draws attention to the higher cardiovascular risk profile of middle-aged migraineurs and highlights the deficiency of primary prevention. Pain physicians must be aware of the cardiovascular aspects of migraine and holistic approach is required instead of focusing only on pain and pain relief.
Associations of Alpha and Beta Interhemispheric EEG Coherences with Indices of Attentional Control and Academic Performance
Introduction. Heretofore, research on optimizing academic performance has suffered from an inability to translate what is known about an individual’s learning behaviors to how effectively they are able to use the critical nodes and hubs in their cerebral cortex for learning. A previous study from our laboratory suggests that lower theta-beta ratios (TBRs) measured by EEG may be associated with higher academic performance in a medical school curriculum. Methods. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TBR and academic performance may be correlated with EEG coherence, a measure of brain connectivity. We analyzed the interhemispheric coherences of the subjects involved in our prior study. TBR and coherence measurements were made at 19 scalp electrode recording sites and 171 electrode combinations with eyes open and closed (EO, EC). Control data were acquired during a session of acclimation to the research protocol 3 d before an initial examination in anatomy-physiology (control exam) and were repeated five weeks later, 3 d before a second exam covering different anatomy-physiology topics (comparison exam). Results. Between the control and comparison exams, beta coherences increased significantly at the frontal pole, frontal, parietal, midtemporal, posterior temporal, and occipital recording sites under the EO condition and at the inferior frontal, central, midtemporal, and posterior temporal sites under the EC condition. Alpha coherences increased significantly at the same sites and under the same EO/EC conditions as found for the beta coherences. The beta coherences were negatively correlated with the TBR and were positively correlated with the comparison exam score at the midfrontal electrode site (F3-F4) but only under the EO condition. Beta and alpha coherences at the midfrontal, inferior frontal midtemporal, posterior temporal, and occipital sites were also negatively correlated with the average TBR under the EO condition. Conclusions. Lower TBR, an indicator of attentional control, was associated with higher alpha and beta interhemispheric coherences measured with eyes open at sites overlying the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices. Changes in EEG coherences and TBRs might be useful as neurophysiological measures of neuroplasticity and the efficacy of strategies for preventing academic underachievement and treatments for improving academic performance.