Article of the Year 2022
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Acceptance Factors and Psychological Investigation of Clinical Trials in Cancer Patients
Aim. To understand the degree of oncology patients’ awareness of drug clinical trials and oncology patients’ willingness to participate in drug clinical trials and the factors influencing them. Methods. The differences in the relevant variables of patients’ willingness to accept clinical trials were analyzed, and a descriptive analysis was done for the measurement data (mean and standard deviation). Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis was used to examine the correlation between willingness and the demographic variables. Stepwise regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of patients’ willingness to accept clinical trials. Results. There were no statistical differences in age, gender, education level, marital status, place of residence, monthly income, medical payment method, and treatment time (). Patients’ willingness to accept drug clinical trials differed in their cognitive degree of clinical drug trials (). Patients’ willingness to accept drug clinical trials differed in their experience in clinical trials (). The correlation difference was statistically significant. The willingness to accept drug clinical trials was negatively correlated with treatment time (, ) and positively correlated with awareness of clinical trials and whether they had been subjects ( and 0.43, ). Multiple regression analysis showed that patients’ willingness was directly influenced by age, treatment time, and whether they had been subjects (, ). Conclusion. Age, treatment time, and whether they had been subjects were the direct influencing factors of patients’ willingness. This study pointed out that hospitals should do a good job in the publicity of clinical trials of new drugs, expand publicity channels, increase publicity efforts, improve the awareness of clinical trials of the masses, and promote the enthusiasm of the masses to participate in clinical trials of drugs.
Mechanism and Therapeutic Prospect of miRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the smallest class of noncoding RNAs, which widely exist in animals and plants. They can inhibit translation or overexpression by combining with mRNA and participate in posttranscriptional regulation of genes, resulting in reduced expression of target proteins, affecting the development, growth, aging, metabolism, and other physiological and pathological processes of animals and plants. It is a powerful negative regulator of gene expression. It mediates the information exchange between different cellular pathways in cellular homeostasis and stress response and regulates the differentiation, plasticity, and neurotransmission of neurons. In neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to the complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, miRNAs can serve as a promising diagnostic tool for diseases. They can also increase or reduce neuronal damage by regulating the body’s signaling pathways, immune system, stem cells, gut microbiota, etc. They can not only affect the occurrence of diseases and exacerbate disease progression but also promote neuronal repair and reduce apoptosis, to prevent and slow down the development of diseases. This article reviews the research progress of miRNAs on the mechanism and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in the nervous system. This trial is registered with NCT01819545, NCT02129452, NCT04120493, NCT04840823, NCT02253732, NCT02045056, NCT03388242, NCT01992029, NCT04961450, NCT03088839, NCT04137926, NCT02283073, NCT04509271, NCT02859428, and NCT05243017.
Oral Administration of Lactobacillus Inhibits the Permeability of Blood-Brain and Gut Barriers in a Parkinsonism Model
It has recently been shown that the administration of probiotics can modulate the microbiota-gut-brain axis and may have favorable effects in models of Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we used a hemiparkinsonism model induced by the neurotoxin 6-OHDA to evaluate the efficacy of the administration of a four-week administration of a mixture containing the microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LH01, Lactobacillus reuteri LH03, and Lactobacillus plantarum LH05. The hemiparkinsonism model induced an increase in rotations in the apomorphine test, along with a decrease in the latency time to fall in the rotarod test on days 14 and 21 after surgery, respectively. The administration of probiotics was sufficient to improve this condition. The model also showed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum and the number of labeled cells in the substantia nigra, both of which were counteracted by the administration of probiotics. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier was increased in the model, but this effect was reversed by the probiotics for both brain regions. The gut barrier was permeated with the model, and this effect was reversed and dropped to lower levels than the control group after the administration of probiotics. Finally, lipid peroxidation showed a pattern of differences similar to that of permeabilities. The inhibition of the permeability of the blood-brain and gut barriers mediated by the administration of probiotics will likely provide protection by downregulating oxidative stress, thus affecting the rotarod test performance.
Development and Validation of the Amharic Version of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy Measures on Intention to Take Preventive Actions on Noncommunicable Disease
This study is aimed at developing and accessing the validity and reliability of an Amharic version of the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy measures on noncommunicable disease prevention strategies. The intentions to take protective measures on NCDs’ self-efficacy and outcome expectancy scales were created in Amharic using a sequential nine-step process that included translation and contextualization of the items, content validity, pretesting of the questions, sampling, and survey administration. Principal component analysis was conducted on 829 university students which showed a one-factor solution for self-efficacy and a three-factor solution for outcome expectancy scales using split-half measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the factor structure, which also demonstrated good internal consistency (.828 self-efficacy, .766 outcome expectancy). The scales had a moderate level of correlation (, ) between them. The study resulted in reliable and valid Amharic versions of self-efficacy (9-item) and outcome expectancy (12-item) scales.
Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Neurological Disorders: A Comprehensive Review
Cannabidiol (CBD), derived from Cannabis sativa, has gained remarkable attention for its potential therapeutic applications. This thorough analysis explores the increasing significance of CBD in treating neurological conditions including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, which present major healthcare concerns on a worldwide scale. Despite the lack of available therapies, CBD has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological effects in preclinical and clinical studies, making it an intriguing competitor. This review brings together the most recent findings on the endocannabinoid and neurotransmitter systems, as well as anti-inflammatory pathways, that underlie CBD’s modes of action. Synthesized efficacy and safety assessments for a range of neurological illnesses are included, covering human trials, in vitro studies, and animal models. The investigation includes how CBD could protect neurons, control neuroinflammation, fend off oxidative stress, and manage neuronal excitability. This study emphasizes existing clinical studies and future possibilities in CBD research, addressing research issues such as regulatory complications and contradicting results, and advocates for further investigation of therapeutic efficacy and ideal dose methodologies. By emphasizing CBD’s potential to improve patient well-being, this investigation presents a revised viewpoint on its suitability as a therapeutic intervention for neurological illnesses.
Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist among the Lebanese Population Exposed to the Beirut Explosion: A Cross-Sectional Study during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Objective. This study was aimed at testing the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual version 5 (DSM-5) (PCL-5) among the Lebanese population and at identifying the prevalence of PTSD. Design. A cross-sectional survey of PCL-5 among 950 Lebanese, using the online survey platform by Google Form, was conducted. Snowball recruitment was used to identify participants for the survey. Results. Face, content, construct, discriminant, and convergent validity had been accomplished through the survey. The reliability using Cronbach’s alpha, composite, and average variance extracted was identified as superior. We also found that more than half of the participants (55.6%) scored 33 or above which is the cut-off score for a likely diagnosis of PTSD. Conclusion. The current study provides further support for the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of PCL-5 among non-Western populations. This supports using the checklist in the screening of probable PTSD.