A Novel PRRT2 Variant in Chinese Patients Suffering from Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile ConvulsionRead the full article
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Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Diabetes, Hypertension, and Heart Failure Patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia
Background. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. However, they are usually unrecognized and untreated especially in developing countries. Identifying factors associated with anxiety and depression is helpful for early screening and management. Objective. This study is aimed at assessing factors associated with anxiety and depression among diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dessie Referral Hospital from February 22, 2019 to April 6, 2019. A total of 404 diabetic, hypertension, and heart failure patients were included through systematic sampling technique. The data were collected by face-to-face interview. After data collection, the data were cleaned and presented with text, graphs, and tables. Multivariable binary logistic regression was deployed to identify factors at a value of < 0.05. Result. A total of 384 patients participated with a 94.8% response rate. Among these, 32% and 5.73% of them had anxiety and depression, respectively. Patients who did not read and write develop anxiety 7.89 times more likely compared with those whose educational status is diploma and above (AOR: 7.89; 95% CI: 3.08-20.26; ). Patients who took substances like chat, cigarette, shisha, hashish, and alcohol develop anxiety 2.56 times more likely compared with their counterparts (AOR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.05–6.23; ). Patients whose level of physical activity is inactive develop depression 24 times more likely than patients who did a health-enhancing physical activity. Patients who are widowed develop depression 5 times more likely compared with married patients. Conclusion and Recommendations. Low educational level, being single and widowed, substance use, poor perception towards prognosis of illness, and monthly income were factors associated with anxiety. On the other hand, being single and unable to do physical activity were statistically associated with depression. Patients with low educational level and monthly income should be screened and supported for anxiety. Health care providers should provide advice to patients about the importance of physical activity to prevent depression.
Changes in the Rhythm of Speech Difference between People with Nondegenerative Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Preclinical Dementia
This study explores several speech parameters related to mild cognitive impairment, as well as those that might be flagging the presence of an underlying neurodegenerative process. Speech is an excellent biomarker because it is not invasive and, what is more, its analysis is rapid and economical. Our aim has been to ascertain whether the typical speech patterns of people with Alzheimer’s disease are also present during the disorder’s preclinical stages. To do so, we shall be using a task that involves reading out aloud. This is followed by an analysis of the recordings, looking for the possible parameters differentiating between those older people with MCI and a high probability of developing dementia and those with MCI that will not do so. We found that the disease’s most differentiating parameters prior to its onset involve changes in speech duration and an alteration in rhythm rate and intensity. These parameters seem to be related to the first difficulties in lexical access among older people with AD.
Primary Cognitive Factors Impaired after Glioma Surgery and Associated Brain Regions
Previous studies have shown that cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors are not severe. However, to preserve the postsurgical QOL of patients with brain tumors, it is important to identify “primary” cognitive functions and associated brain regions that are more vulnerable to cognitive impairments following surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate primary cognitive factors affecting not only simple cognitive tasks but also several other cognitive tasks and associated brain regions. Patients with glioma in the left () and the right () hemisphere participated in the study. Seven neuropsychological tasks from five cognitive domains were conducted pre- and 6 months postoperation. Factor analyses were conducted to identify “primary” common cognitive functions affecting the task performance in left and right glioma groups. Next, lesion analyses were performed using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify critical brain regions related to impairments of the primary cognitive functions. Factor analysis revealed two primary cognitive components in each glioma group. The first cognitive component in the left glioma group affected the digit span forward and backward tasks and concept shifting and the letter-digit substitution tasks. VLSM analysis revealed significant regions from the posterior middle temporal gyri to the supramarginal gyrus. The second cognitive component affected verbal memory, and verbal fluency tasks and VLSM analysis indicated two different significant regions, the medial temporal regions and the middle temporal gyrus to the posterior parietal lobes. The first cognitive component in the right glioma group affected positive and negative factor loadings on the task, such that the positive cognitive component affected only the Stroop color-word task. VLSM related to deficits of the Stroop task revealed significant regions in the anterior medial frontal cortex. On the other hand, the negative component affected concept shifting, word fluency, and digit span forward tasks, and VLSM revealed significant regions in the right inferior frontal cortex. It is suggested that primary cognitive functions related to specific brain regions were possibly affected by glioma resection.
Neurocognitive Complications after Ventricular Neuroendoscopy: A Systematic Review
In recent years, neuroendoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus and various ventricular pathologies has become increasingly popular. It is considered by many as the first-choice treatment for the majority of these cases. However, neurocognitive complications following ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures may occur leading mostly to amnesia, which might have a grave effect on the patient’s quality of life. Studies assessing neurocognitive complications after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures are sparse. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review assessing the available literature of neurocognitive complications and outcome after ventricular neuroendoscopy. Of 1216 articles screened, 46 were included in this systematic review. Transient and permanent neurocognitive complications in 2804 ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures occurred in 2.0% () and 1.04% () of the patients, respectively. Most complications described are memory impairment, followed by psychiatric symptoms (psychosyndrome), cognitive impairment not further specified, declined executive function, and confusion. However, only in 20% of the series describing neurocognitive complications or outcome () was neurocognition assessed by a trained neuropsychologist in a systematic manner. While in most of these series only a part of the included patients underwent neuropsychological testing, neurocognitive assessment was seldom done pre- and postoperatively, long-term follow up was rare, and patient’s cohorts were small. A paucity of studies analyzing neurocognitive complications and outcome, through systematic neuropsychological testing, and the correlation with intraoperative lesions of neuronal structures (e.g., fornix) exists in the literature. Therefore, the neurocognitive and emotional morbidity after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures might be underestimated and warrants further research.
Too Real to Be Virtual: Autonomic and EEG Responses to Extreme Stress Scenarios in Virtual Reality
The evolution of virtual reality (VR) technologies requires setting boundaries of its use. In this study, 3 female participants were experiencing VR scenarios with stressful content and their activity of the autonomic nervous system and EEG were recorded. It has been discovered that virtual reality can evoke acute stress reactions accompanied by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. The high-stress response is accompanied by a decrease in the power of the EEG, and, on the contrary, the activation of the avoidance reaction is accompanied by an increase in the power of the EEG alpha waves. Therefore, the use of stressful VR content can cause high emotional stress to a user and restrictions should be considered.
Changes in Physiological and Pathological Behaviours Produced by Deep Microelectrode Implantation Surgery in Rats: A Temporal Analysis
Physiological behaviours such as the sleep-wake cycle and exploratory behaviours are important parameters in intact and sham-operated animals and are usually thought to be unaffected by experimental protocols in which neurosurgery is performed. However, there is insufficient evidence in the literature on the behavioural and cognitive effects observed after deep microelectrode implantation surgery in animal models of neurological diseases. Similarly, in studies that utilize animal models of neurological diseases, the impact of surgery on the pathological phenomena being studied is often minimized. Based on these considerations, we performed a temporal analysis of the effects of deep microelectrode implantation surgery in the hippocampus of rats on quiet wakefulness, sleep, and exploratory activity and the pathological behaviours such as convulsive seizures according to the Racine scale. Male Wistar rats (210-300 g) were used and grouped in sham and epileptic animals. Single doses of pilocarpine hydrochloride (2.4 mg/2 μl; i.c.v.) were administered to the animals to generate spontaneous and recurrent seizures. Deep microelectrode implantation surgeries in both groups and analysis of Fast ripples were performed. Physiological and pathological behaviours were recorded through direct video monitoring of animals (24/7). Our principal findings showed that in epileptic animals, one of the main behaviours affected by surgery is sleep; as a consequence of this behavioural change, a decrease in exploratory activity was also found as well as the mean time spent daily in seizures of scale 4 and the number of seizure events of scales 4 and 5 was increased after surgery. No significant correlations between the occurrence of FR and seizure events of scale 4 (rho 0.63, value 0.25) or 5 (rho -0.7, value 0.18) were observed. In conclusion, microelectrode implantation surgeries modified some physiological and pathological behaviours; therefore, it is important to consider this fact when it is working with animal models.