Behavioural Neurology
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate41%
Submission to final decision57 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore2.900
Impact Factor2.093

Retinal Levels of Amyloid Beta Correlate with Cerebral Levels of Amyloid Beta in Young APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice before Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease

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Behavioural Neurology provides a platform for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry.

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Research Article

Comparison of Performance on the Clock Drawing Test Using Three Different Scales in Dialysis Patients

Background. The clock drawing test (CDT) is frequently used to detect changes in cognition. Multiple scales of varying length have been published to assess performance. The aim of this study is to compare the CDT performance measured by three scales among a sample of nondemented patients on renal dialysis and identify the variables that affect performance. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study performed at the dialysis unit at King Saud University Medical City. Eighty-nine dialysis patients performed the CDT. The CDT was scored by the methods of Rouleau et al. (RCS 10-point), Babins et al. (BCS 18-point), and the MoCA (MCS 3-point). Regression models were used to determine influencing demographic and dialysis variables. Scores were then correlated, and a combined factor analysis of scale components was done. Results. Females represented 44.6%, the mean (SD) age was 49.99 (15.49) years, and education duration was 10.29 (5.5) years. Dialysis vintage was 55.81 (62.91) months. The scores for the MCS, RCS, and BCS were 2.18 (1.08), 6.67 (3.07), and 11.8 (5.5), respectively, with significant correlation (). In all scales, increasing age was associated with a lower score (each ). The scores increased with increasing education (each ). Diabetics had a lower score on both the BCS and MCS by 2.56 (SE 1.2) () and 0.71 () points, respectively. However, only age and years of education were significant in the multivariable analysis. In factor analysis, two shared factors appeared between the three scales: hand and number placement and the clock face. Conclusion. Age and education influence the performance on the CDT, and factors diverged into executive and visuospatial components. The MCS is likely to yield useful information but should be interpreted as part of the MoCA.

Research Article

Evaluating Executive Functions in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Using Frontal Assessment Battery

Objective. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the executive profile of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as a bedside screening tool and investigate its association with seizure proximity, family history of epilepsy, and polytherapy/monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Background. JME patients have deficits in various aspects of executive functions. FAB has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating executive functions in clinical settings. Methods. Thirty-one JME patients and 110 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. The participants were assessed using six subsets of FAB, including conceptualization, mental flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. Results. Compared to HCs, JME patients showed lower scores in conceptualization, mental flexibility, programming, sensitivity to interference, and total FAB. The number of AEDs (polytherapy versus monotherapy) and duration of time since the last seizure had no significant effect on FAB scores in JME patients. We found significant associations between disease duration and conceptualization, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and total FAB score only in JME patients with recent seizure. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.947–0.994) for FAB total score, 0.933 for conceptualization (95% CI: 0.973-894), and 0.836 for mental flexibility (95% CI: 0.921-751). Conclusions. In summary, JME patients had deficits in different aspects of executive functions. FAB is a useful clinical tool for evaluation of executive functions in JME patients.

Review Article

Abnormal Homocysteine Metabolism: An Insight of Alzheimer’s Disease from DNA Methylation

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system that has complex pathogenesis in the elderly. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD, according to the latest findings. One of the best-characterized chromatin modifications in epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. Highly replicable data shows that AD occurrence is often accompanied by methylation level changes of the AD-related gene. Homocysteine (Hcy) is not only an intermediate product of one-carbon metabolism but also an important independent risk factor of AD; it can affect the cognitive function of the brain by changing the one-carbon metabolism and interfering with the DNA methylation process, resulting in cerebrovascular disease. In general, Hcy may be an environmental factor that affects AD via the DNA methylation pathway with a series of changes in AD-related substance. This review will concentrate on the relation between DNA methylation and Hcy and try to figure out their rule in the pathophysiology of AD.

Research Article

A Novel Metabolic Connectome Method to Predict Progression to Mild Cognitive Impairment

Objective. Glucose-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely used to predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinically. However, existing discriminant methods are unsubtle to reveal pathophysiological changes. Therefore, we present a novel metabolic connectome-based predictive modeling to predict progression from MCI to AD accurately. Methods. In this study, we acquired fluorodeoxyglucose PET images and clinical assessments from 420 MCI patients with 36 months follow-up. Individual metabolic network based on connectome analysis was constructed, and the metabolic connectivity in this network was extracted as predictive features. Three different classification strategies were implemented to interrogate the predictive performance. To verify the effectivity of selected features, specific brain regions associated with MCI conversion were identified based on these features and compared with prior knowledge. Results. As a result, 4005 connectome features were obtained, and 153 in which were selected as efficient features. Our proposed feature extraction method had achieved 85.2% accuracy for MCI conversion prediction (sensitivity: 88.1%; specificity: 81.2%; and AUC: 0.933). The discriminative brain regions associated with MCI conversion were mainly located in the precentral gyrus, precuneus, lingual, and inferior frontal gyrus. Conclusion. Overall, the results suggest that our proposed individual metabolic connectome method has great potential to predict whether MCI patients will progress to AD. The metabolic connectome may help to identify brain metabolic dysfunction and build a clinically applicable biomarker to predict the MCI progression.

Research Article

Neuropsychological and Emotional Functioning in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

Patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) frequently report impairments in cognitive and emotional functioning. Given neuroimaging research that implicates alterations in structure and function in the brain in this population, goals of this study were to investigate neuropsychological and emotional functioning, with particular emphasis on complex attention and memory. In a clinical sample of 18 adults with CS referred for neuropsychological evaluation (age , 72% Caucasian), patients’ most common subjective complaints were in attention and increased irritability. On objective testing, patients exhibited significant declines in the consistency of their sustained attention and visual-spatial functioning compared to normative peers. Patients exhibited on average significantly reduced initial learning following first exposure to visual and verbal stimuli but intact retention of information learned. Patients with CS endorsed highly elevated levels of somatization, depression, and anxiety, and 59% of them scored in the clinically elevated range for somatization and depressive symptomatology. Exploratory analyses suggested that the 11 patients with active Cushing’s exhibited lower processing speed, poorer sustained attention, naming, and cognitive flexibility compared to the 7 patients who achieved biochemical remission. Patients with active Cushing’s also reported higher levels of somatization and anxiety compared to patients in biochemical remission. Overall, this study provides new insights into complex attention and memory deficits in patients with CS and concern regarding cognitive and emotional issues despite resolution of hypercortisolism. Our study opens several avenues for further exploration.

Research Article

Conversational Therapy through Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality Environments for Language Recovery and Psychological Well-Being in Post Stroke Aphasia

Aphasia is a highly disabling acquired language disorder generally caused by a left-lateralized brain damage. Even if traditional therapies have been shown to induce an adequate clinical improvement, a large percentage of patients are left with some degree of language impairments. Therefore, new approaches to common speech therapies are urgently needed in order to maximize the recovery from aphasia. The recent application of virtual reality (VR) to aphasia rehabilitation has already evidenced its usefulness in promoting a more pragmatically oriented treatment than conventional therapies (CT). In the present study, thirty-six chronic persons with aphasia (PWA) were randomly assigned to two groups. The VR group underwent conversational therapy during VR everyday life setting observation, while the control group was trained in a conventional setting without VR support. All patients were extensively tested through a neuropsychological battery which included not only measures for language skills and communication efficacy but also self-esteem and quality of life questionnairies. All patients were trained through a conversational approach by a speech therapist twice a week for six months (total 48 sessions). After the treatment, no significant differences among groups were found in the different measures. However, the amount of improvement in the different areas was distributed over far more cognitive and psychological aspects in the VR group than in the control group. Indeed, the within-group comparisons showed a significant enhancement in different language tasks (i.e., oral comprehension, repetition, and written language) only in the VR group. Significant gains, after the treatment, were also found, in the VR group, in different psychological dimensions (i.e., self-esteem and emotional and mood state). Given the importance of these aspects for aphasia recovery, we believe that our results add to previous evidence which points to the ecological validity and feasibility of VR treatment for language recovery and psychosocial well-being.

Behavioural Neurology
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate41%
Submission to final decision57 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore2.900
Impact Factor2.093
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