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Effect of a Multistage Educational Skill-Based Program on Nurse’s Stress and Anxiety in the Intensive Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. Psychological problems such as stress and anxiety are prevalent among working nurses in the intensive care units (ICUs). This study was aimed at investigating the effects of three skill-based educational programs on stress and anxiety among critical care nurses. Methods. Using a randomized controlled trial, 160 nurses were assigned to four groups including one control and three intervention groups. A standard skill-based educational program was delivered to three intervention groups using booklet, booklet+oral presentation, and booklet+oral presentation+clinical teaching over a period of one month to reduce different types of stress and anxiety. The control group received routine education only. Perceived stress, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and work-related stress were assessed at baseline and three times after the intervention (15 days, 3 months, and 21 months). Repeated-measure analysis of variance was used for data analysis. Results. There was no significant change in the control group in terms of study variables during follow-up assessments, whereas measures of stress and anxiety were reduced after intervention in the trial groups except trait anxiety. Nurses in the mixed-method group (booklet+oral presentation+clinical teaching) showed less stress and anxiety during follow-ups. Although the stress and anxiety scores decreased in the first and second follow-ups, there was no significant reduction in the third follow-up. Conclusions. To improve the mental health and performance of the intensive care unit nurses, knowledge-based and skill-based training programs seem useful. Continuous training may help to maintain the effectiveness of these programs over time.
High Methionine Diet-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease like Symptoms Are Accompanied by 5-Methylcytosine Elevated Levels in the Brain
Background. Excessive or insufficient intake of methionine (Met) causes neuronal dysfunction, neurodegeneration, cerebrovascular dysfunction, vascular leakage, and short-term memory loss, which result in the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease- (AD-) like symptoms. Objective. To determine the relationship between high methionine diets (HMD) induced AD-like symptoms and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) level. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (Maintain diets) and the model group (2% HMD). Mice were fed with 2% HMD for 9 weeks. Animals were weighed and food intake was recorded weekly. Open field test, nesting ability test, Y maze test, new object recognition test, and Morris water maze test were used to detect the motor, learning, and memory ability. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the damage of cells in hippocampus and cortex. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining was used to detect the expression and distribution of amyloid-β 1-40 (Aβ1-40), amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) in hippocampus and cortex. Western blotting (WB) was used to determine the expression of Aβ and DNA methyltransferases- (DNMTs-) related proteins in the cortex. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect homocysteine (Hcy) level (ELISA). Results. Feeding of HMD decreased the body weight and food intake of mice. Behavioral testing revealed that HMD caused learning, memory, and motor ability impairment in the mice. HE staining results showed that HMD feeding caused damage of hippocampal and cortical neurons, along with disordered cell arrangement, and loss of neurons. Furthermore, HMD increased the contents of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and 5-mC in the hippocampus and cortex. WB results showed that HMD increased the expression of Aβ production-related proteins, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), and decreased the expression of Aβ metabolism-related protein in the cortex, including insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and neprilysin (NEP). Additionally, the decreased expression of DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) was observed in HMD-treated mice, but there was no significant change of DNMT3a level. ELISA results showed that HMD increased the levels of Hcy in serum. Conclusion. Our result suggested that the HMD can cause neurotoxicity, leading to AD-like symptoms in mice, which may be related to 5-mC elevated.
Mild Gait Impairment and Its Potential Diagnostic Value in Patients with Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease
Background and Purpose. Patients with early-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD) have gait impairments, and gait parameters may act as diagnostic biomarkers. We aimed to (1) comprehensively quantify gait impairments in early-stage PD and (2) evaluate the diagnostic value of gait parameters for early-stage PD. Methods. 32 patients with early-stage PD and 30 healthy control subjects (HC) were enrolled. All participants completed the instrumented stand and walk test, and gait data was collected using wearable sensors. Results. We observed increased variability of stride length (SL) (), stance phase time (StPT) (), and swing phase time (SwPT) () in PD. There were decreased heel strike (HS) (), range of motion of knee (), and hip joints () in PD. In symmetry analysis, no difference was found in any of the assessed gait parameters between HC and PD. Only total steps (, ), SL (, ), SL variability (, ), StPT variability (, ), and SwPT variability (, ) had potential diagnostic value. When these five gait parameters were combined, the predictive power was found to increase, with the highest AUC of 0.802 (). Conclusions. Patients with early-stage PD presented increased variability but still symmetrical gait pattern. Some specific gait parameters can be applied to diagnose early-stage PD which may increase diagnosis accuracy. Our findings are helpful to improve patient’s quality of life.
A Case of Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis following Late-Onset Bipolar Disorder
Objective. To describe a case of lung cancer with brain metastasis in a patient who developed new late-onset bipolar disorder 2 years previously. Background. The typical onset age of bipolar disorder is approximately 20, and the first episode is usually a depressive episode. It is still not clear which age-specific factors contribute to the underlying risk. Materials and Methods. A 65-year-old male patient presented with a new-onset manic episode characterized by labile mood, impulsivity, decreased need for sleep, and grandiosity. He was diagnosed with late-onset bipolar disorder after excluding other possible physiological conditions. He was hospitalized in the acute psychiatric ward, and a combination of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics was prescribed. His mental condition improved, and he remained stable for 2 years. However, he experienced abrupt cognitive decline for 2 months and was referred to the emergency room for physiological examination. Results. The patient was diagnosed with lung cancer with brain metastasis by brain magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body positron emission tomography. Conclusion. In geriatric patients, who are at high risk of multiple medical conditions, excluding secondary causes of bipolar disorder is important.
Serotonin 2 Receptors, Agomelatine, and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease
There are nearly 50 million Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients worldwide, 90% of whom develop behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which increase the mortality rate of patients, and impose an economic and care burden on families and society. As a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, serotonin is involved in the regulation of psychoemotional, sleep, and feeding functions. Accumulating data support the importance of serotonin in the occurrence and development of BPSD. Studies have shown that reduction of serotonin receptors can increase depression and mental symptoms in AD patients. At present, there is no drug treatment for AD approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Among them, agomelatine, as a new type of antidepressant, can act on serotonin 2 receptors to improve symptoms such as depression and anxiety. At present, research on BPSD is still in the preliminary exploratory stage, and there are still a lot of unknowns. This review summarizes the relationship between serotonin 2 receptors, agomelatine, and BPSD. It provides a new idea for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of BPSD.
Apathy, Cognitive Impairment, and Social Support Contribute to Participation in Cognitively Demanding Activities Poststroke
Importance. Individuals with chronic stroke experience decreased participation in activities with cognitive demands across all areas of occupation. Objective. To understand the extent to which apathy, cognition, and social support predict participation in activities with cognitive demands. Design. Prospective, quantitative correlational, cross-sectional study. Setting. Outpatient treatment centers and community stroke support groups located in St. Louis, MO, and Boston, MA. Participants. 81 community-dwelling -month poststroke with and without aphasia. Measures. Participants completed the Activity Card Sort (ACS), Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS) Design Fluency and Trail-Making subtests. Results. Cognitive deficits limit participation in activities with high cognitive demands. Apathy and positive social interaction influence participation, regardless of high or low cognitive demands. Poststroke aphasia did not impact return to participation in activities with high and low cognitive demands. Conclusions and Relevance. Cognitive deficits seen poststroke contribute to participation only for activities with high cognitive demands. Apathy has a significant and negative influence on participation overall. Social support is a modifiable contextual factor that can facilitate participation. Poststroke apathy can be detrimental to participation but is not well recognized. The availability of companionship from others to enjoy time with can facilitate participation.