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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 153-168

Visual Hypo and Hypergnosia as Exemplars of Poles of Psychic Tonus in the Occipital Lobes: Multiple Case Analyses

Claude M. J. Braun and Anik Guimond

Institut de Sciences Cognitives and Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada

Received 16 December 2008; Accepted 16 December 2008

Copyright © 2008 Hindawi Publishing Corporation and the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The “psychic tonus” model or PTM [1] of hemispheric specialization states that the left hemisphere is a psychic and behavioral activator and that the right hemisphere is an inhibitor. The PTM predicts that the tonus of visual representation ought to manifest hemispheric specialization in the occipital lobes. Specifically PTM predicts that pathological positive visual tonus (visual hallucination) ought to be associated more frequently with right occipital lesions. PTM also predicts that pathological negative visual tonus (loss of visual imagery) ought to result more often from left occipital lesions. We reviewed 78 cases of post lesion hallucination and 12 cases of post lesion loss of evocation of images, all following a unilateral lesion. Analyses of these relevant previously published cases support the predictions. In accordance with previously published demonstrations of hemispheric specialization for auditory tonus in the temporal lobes and for somesthetic tonus in the parietal lobes, the present findings extend the psychic tonus model of hemispheric specialization to vision in the occipital lobes.