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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2014, Article ID 637694, 5 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Early Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndromes and Multiple Sclerosis

1Neurology Department, School of Medicine, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
2Neurology Department, Acibadem University School of Medicine, Turkey

Received 7 December 2012; Revised 22 January 2014; Accepted 26 March 2014; Published 14 April 2014

Academic Editor: Oliver Wirths

Copyright © 2014 Leyla Baysal Kıraç et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients with clinically isolated syndromes and definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis within the last 2 years. Methods. We assessed the cognitive status of 46 patients aged 18–49 years with clinically isolated syndromes or definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis who have onset of their symptoms within the last 2 years. Patients were matched with 40 healthy participants for age, sex, and educational level. Neuropsychological assessment was performed by stroop test, paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), controlled oral word association test (COWAT), clock drawing test, trail making test (TMT), faces symbol test (FST). Hamilton Depression Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale were used to quantify the severity of any depression and fatigue the subjects might suffer. Results. 19.6% of early MS/CIS group failed at 4 and more tests and had significant cognitive impairment focused on attention, executive functions, memory, and learning. No significant relationship was found between cognitive impairment and disability and fatigue scores. Discussion. Cognitive impairment can be present from the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. It should be considered among the main manifestations of MS even in the earliest stages of the disease.