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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015, Article ID 416792, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/416792
Review Article

Recent Insights on Prevalence and Corelations of Hypoactive Delirium

1Private Practice Sector, 45444 Ioannina, Greece
2Intensive Care Unit, Hatzikosta General Hospital, 45445 Ioannina, Greece
3General Hospital of Livadia, 32100 Livadia, Greece

Received 6 April 2015; Revised 27 June 2015; Accepted 5 July 2015

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Bellelli

Copyright © 2015 Vaios Peritogiannis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Delirium is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome which is common in all medical settings. It often goes unrecognized due to difficulties in the detection of its hypoactive variant. This review aims to provide an up-to-date account on recent research on hypoactive delirium (HD). Thirty-eight studies, which were conducted in various clinical settings, including the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), were included in this review. Those studies involved recent research that has been published during the last 6 years. Prevalence of HD was found to vary considerably among different settings. HD seems to be more common in critically ill patients and less common in patients examined by consultation-liaison psychiatric services and in mixed patient populations. The presence of HD in ICU patients was associated with higher short- and long-term mortality and other adverse outcomes, but no such association was reported in other settings. Research on other possible associations of HD with clinical variables and on symptom presentation yielded inconclusive results, although there is some evidence for a possible association of HD with benzodiazepine use. There are several methodological issues that need to be addressed by future research. Future studies should examine HD in the primary care setting; treatment interventions should also be the objective of future research.